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The Shoulder. Bones of the Shoulder Clavicle Scapula Sternum Humerus. Anatomy of the Shoulder. Acromio-clavicular Sterno-clavicular Gleno-humeral Coroco-clavicular. Joints of the Shoulder. Motions of the Shoulder. Flexion Extension Adduction Abduction Internal Rotation

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joints of the shoulder




Joints of the Shoulder
motions of the shoulder
Motions of the Shoulder
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Adduction
  • Abduction
  • Internal Rotation
  • External Rotation
ligaments of the shoulder
Ligaments of the Shoulder
  • Sterno-clavicular-ties sternum and clavicle
  • Acromio-clavicular-ties acromium and clavicle
  • Coroco-clavicular-ties corocoid process and clavicle
  • Transverse-holds long head of biceps in the bicepital groove
  • Gleno-humeral-ties glenoid and humerus
    • Superior
    • Middle
    • Inferior
muscles of the shoulder

Billaterally flexes the neck

Unilaterallty rotates the head

Pectoralis Major

Shoulder Flexion


Elevates/Depresses shoulder

Extends Head

Adducts Scapula

Protracts Shoulder

Holds scapula to body

Muscles of the Shoulder
muscles of the shoulder1

Elevates and protracts scapula

Serratus Anterior

Lack of development causes winged scapula

Muscles of the Shoulder
muscles of the shoulder2

Ties scapula and clavicle to deltoid tuberosity

Anterior, Middle, and Posterior


Latissimus Dorsi

Forms posterior wall of the Axilla

Seldom injured

Internal rotation, extension, adduction, depression

Muscles of the Shoulder
internal muscles of the shoulder
Internal Muscles of the Shoulder
  • All are part of Rotator Cuff
  • Remember by acronym SITS
  • Commonly injured in throwing motions
    • Subscapularis
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres minor
muscles of rotator cuff
Muscles of Rotator Cuff
  • Subscapularis
    • Most anterior muscle
    • Becomes stretched in a dislocation
    • Internal Rotation
muscles of the rotator cuff
Muscles of the Rotator Cuff
  • Supraspinatus
    • Abduction
  • Infraspinatus
    • External Rotation
  • Teres Minor
    • External Rotation
shoulder injuries
Shoulder Subluxation

Fractured Clavicle

Shoulder Dislocation

AC Joint Injuries

Rotator Cuff Impingement

Humeral Fracture

Biceps Tendonitis


Myositis Ossificans

Frozen Shoulder

Glenoid Labrum Injuries

Shoulder Injuries
shoulder subluxation
Shoulder Subluxation
  • Shoulder slips out then reduces on it’s own.
  • Mechanism of injury is falling on an outstretched arm
fractured clavicle
Fractured Clavicle
  • Most frequently fractured bone
  • Lateral 1/3 is the weakest portion
  • Ice and Immobilize
shoulder dislocation
Shoulder Dislocation
  • Mechanism of Injury is falling on outstretched arm
  • Types of Dislocation
    • Anterior
    • Inferior
    • Posterior
ac joint sprains
AC joint Sprains
  • 1st degree
    • Some stretching of ligament
    • No obvious deformity
    • Pt tenderness over AC joint
    • 7-10 days
  • 2nd degree
    • Some or complete tearing of AC ligament
    • Joint Laxity
    • MD Referral
  • 3rd degree
    • Complete loss of AC and CC ligaments
    • Arm Hangs in place
    • Usually surgical repair is needed
rotator cuff impingement
Rotator Cuff Impingement
  • Cuff is swollen or irritated
  • Pain in raising the arm
labrum tears
The glenoid labrum deepens the glenoid cavity

It is a cartilage ring

Causing clicking in the shoulder

Usually repaired or resected

Labrum Tears
fractured humerus
Fractured Humerus
  • Caused by direct blow or falling on arm
  • Needs surgical repair
little league shoulder
Little League Shoulder
  • Caused by too many curve balls
  • Fx of epiphyseal plate
  • Rest for 2 weeks
biceps tendonitis
Biceps Tendonitis
  • Long head of biceps rubs transverse ligament
  • Severe cases becomes so inflamned it decays
    • Rest Modalities
    • Can lead to surgical intervention if not cared for
bursitis frozen shoulder
Bursitis (Frozen Shoulder)
  • Sub Acromial Bursa inflamed
  • Could lead to Frozen Shoulder where bursa hardens and restricts motion
myositis ossificans
Myositis Ossificans
  • Same as Quadriceps
  • Repeated blows to the same area
  • Frequently occurs in the belly of biceps