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Approaches to Problem Solving. Five Step Problem Solving. Identify Gather Facts/Analyze Develop Alternative Actions Make a Decision Follow Through. The Seven Step Problem-Solving Technique. Identify the Problem Gather the Data List Possible Solutions Test Possible Solutions

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five step problem solving
Five Step Problem Solving
  • Identify
  • Gather Facts/Analyze
  • Develop Alternative Actions
  • Make a Decision
  • Follow Through
the seven step problem solving technique
The Seven Step Problem-Solving Technique
  • Identify the Problem
  • Gather the Data
  • List Possible Solutions
  • Test Possible Solutions
  • Select the Best Alternative
  • Implement the Solution
  • Evaluate the Results
the problem solving model
The Problem Solving Model
  • Set Goals
  • Assess Needs- Do an information analysis
  • Write Issue Statements
  • Set Action Objectives
  • Identify and Review Options
  • Select Strategies
  • Design Action Plans
  • Implement Action Plans
how to solve problems
How to Solve Problems
  • Identify the Problem
    • Each person says what happened, how I feel, and what I need. Then restate the problem giving both viewpoints
  • Brainstorm Solutions
  • Evaluate Each Solution
    • Ask: Is it safe, How will it make people feel,Is it fair, Will it work?
  • Choose a Solution and Use It
  • Ask: It it working? Change to another solution if needed
the problem solving model1
The Problem Solving Model
  • Set Goals
  • Assess Needs and Collect Hard Data
  • Write Issue Statements
  • Write Explicit Problem Statements
  • Set Action Objectives and/or Goals
  • Define Selection Questions
  • Explore and Select Alternatives
  • Develop an Action Plan
  • Implement the Action Plan
slide7
Looking at Problems – An Artists ViewFrom: Drawing from the Right Side of the Brain by Betty Edwards (2012, 4th Edition)
  • To saturate your mind with information about a problem . . .To help you see . . . To achieve that perspective . . .You will have to be able to:
  • Perceive the Edges of a Problem

Where are the boundaries?

  • Perceive the Negative Spaces of a Problem
  • What are the spaces around the Subject?
  • Perceive the Relationships and Proportions of a Problem
  • What are the things that don’t change or can’t change? What are the relationships of the parts to each other?
  • Perceive the Lights and Shadows of a Problem
  • What parts are visible? What are the shadows?
  • Perceive the Gestalt of the Problem
  • What is the unique set of qualities that make the problem what is is?
problem solving model mbti
Problem Solving Model (MBTI)
  • Gather relevant date using Sensing Function to collect facts and details
  • Then look at options and possibilities using your Intuition Function to generate alternatives & possible solutions
  • Then use knowledge of cause & effect and the logic of your Thinking Function to list steps involved, weigh strength of each alternative and examine consequences of proposed actions
  • Finally, explore the impact the decisions you make will have on people using your Feeling Function by determining harmony with personal values and weighing gains & losses
problem solving process five basic steps
Problem Solving ProcessFive Basic Steps
  • 1) Fact Finding
  • 2) Problem Finding
  • 3) Idea Finding
  • 4) Solution Finding
  • 5) Acceptance Finding
problem solving process continued
Problem Solving Process Continued
  • 1) Is it something you care about? Can you be specific about the problem? Do you have some influence on the problem?
  • 2) Describe two things: The present situation and the future situation as you would like it to be.
  • What are the positive forces and and what are the forces that resist improvement and keep the problem a problem? Restate your problem briefly, indicating the present situation and consequences and then the future situation and consequences of creating the ideal
problem solving process continued1
Problem Solving Process Continued
  • 3) Most problem situations can be understood in terms of the forces which push toward improvement and the forces which resist improvement and keep the problem a problem. List all the forces on as many sheets as required to complete the task. Identify the helpful, driving forces and the forces that restrain or hinder.
  • 4) Review the two lists and underline those forces which seem most important, which you might be able to affect constructively.
problem solving process continued action steps
Problem Solving Process Continued Action Steps
  • 5) For each restraining force you underlined list some possible action steps which you might be able to plan and carry out to reduce or eliminate the effect of the force.
  • 6) Then do the same for each driving force
  • 7) Decide which action steps appear to be most promising in achieving the desired change. Which action steps if implemented would cause the most resistance?
problem solving process continued action steps1
Problem Solving Process ContinuedAction Steps
  • 8) When you deicide on the action steps then list the materials, people, and other resources you will need to carry out the action
  • 9) Review and critique your action plan-eliminate items or action steps that do not seem to fit into your plan. Add new steps and resources then plan the sequence of action steps.
  • 10) Set up begin dates and ending dates and create a process for evaluating your plan
decision making model
Decision Making Model
  • What is your central or core issue? Define it by looking at it from various perspectives
  • Brainstorm alternative strategies for addressing the core issue
  • List questions you have about each strategy
  • List advantages of each strategy
  • List the disadvantages of each
  • List and prioritize recommendations.
  • Write your rationale for each recommendation.
  • Decide which recommendations you will implement