Mobile Database Systems Hamzeh Khazaei Math & Computer Sc. Dep Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic) Hamzeh.email@example.com
Agenda • Mobile Database Systems, Intro • Wireless Network Communication • Location & Handoff Management • Fundamentals of Database Technology • Concurrency Control Mechanisms • Data Processing & Mobility • Transaction Management in MDS • Mobile Database Recovery • Wireless Information Broadcast
Mobile Database Systems Outline • Fully Connected Information Space • Personal Communication System (PCS) • Mobile Database Systems (MDS) • Transaction Management • Data Caching • Query Processing • Data Classification • Conclusion
Mobile Database Systems Fully connected information space
Mobile Database Systems Fully connected information space • Each node of the information space has some communication capability. • Some node can process information. • Some node can communicate through voice channel. • Some node can do both
Mobile Database Systems Fully connected information space Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems, and wired and wireless systems (PCS, Cellular system, and GSM)
Mobile Database Systems A system with the following structural and functional properties • Distributed system with mobile connectivity • Full database system capability • Complete spatial mobility • Built on PCS/GSM platform • Wireless and wired communication capability What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)?
Mobile Database Systems What is a mobile connectivity? A mode in which a client or a server can establish communication with each other whenever needed. Intermittent connectivity is a special case of mobile connectivity.
Mobile Database Systems What is intermittent connectivity? A node in which only the client can establish communication whenever needed with the server but the server cannot do so.
Types of Mobility • Terminal Mobility
Types of Mobility • Personal Mobility
Terminal Mobility • It allow a Mobile unit (laptop, cell phone, PDA, etc) to access desired services from any location while in motion or stationary, irrespective of who is carrying the unit. • For example a cell phone can use of network service with owner or someone else. • In terminal mobility, it is the responsibility of wireless network to identify communication device.
Personal Mobility • A user dose not have to carry any communication equipment with him. • User can use any communication device for establishing communication with the other party. • This facility requires an identification scheme to verify the person wishing to communicate. • Each person has uniquely identified and can use any mobile device for communication. (example is the internet).
Wireless Network Communication • This part deal with architecture of cellular communication and identifies hardware & software component to build mobile database systems. • All wireless system use electromagnetic waves to propagate information from one place to another. (radio frequencies). • Use different frequencies for different purposes.
Cellular Communication • Geographical area divided to some slots that use RF to setup communication in each slots, this slots referred to as a cell. • The entire communication infrastructure is known as cellular communication. • The best coverage pattern is hexagons shapes, that no have uncovered space. • A cell must have a wireless component for managing the communication. • The transceiver is installed in the best place of cell.
Cellular Communication • In a cellular architecture a number of wireless and wired components are required to establish the desired point-to-point, point-to-multipoint communication. • One such component is the transceiver, which referred as Base Station (BS). • A BS functions under the supervision of telecommunication switch called Mobile Switching Center (MSC) and connected to it through wired line.
Structure of a Channel • In mobile discipline two frequencies are required to establish communication; one from mobile unit (MU) to Base Station (BS) (uplink channel) and inverse (downlink channel).
PCS & GSM • Personal Communication System • Evolved in North America • Support Digital and analogue • Global System for Mobile Communication • Evolved in Europe • Purely Digital
Personal Communication System (PCS) Part 1 • Architecture • Wireless communication • Bandwidth limitations • Frequency reuse
Personal Communication System (PCS) A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Wireless Components Base Station (BS): A switch, which serves as communication link between MU and the entire network Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or Mobile Hosts (MH). A mobile component, which communicates with BS through a limited number of wireless channels.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Wireless Components Home Location Register (HLR): It’s a large database which stores necessary information such as geographical location of subscriber, call processing, billing, service subscription, service restriction, etc. It can be distributed database. Authentication Center (AC): The AC is the processor system, witch authenticate subscribers, AC needs to access user information for authentication process so its co-located with HLR, then the AC and HLR store in MSC. The authentication steps as follows :
Personal Communication System (PCS) Wireless Components 1- AC sends a random number to the mobile unit from where the call originates. 2- Authentication algorithm stored in SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) manipulates this random number using a Subscriber Authentication Key, which is also stored in SIM. 3- The result of this manipulation is sent to AC along with an encryption key. 4- Concurrent with the authentication computation at the mobile unit, AC performs identical computation using the random number and information stored in HLR.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Wireless Components 5- AC compares the result of its own computation and the result received from the mobile unit. In the case of successful comparison, it permits the subscriber to access the network and stores and sends the encryption key to BS to enable ciphering to take place. Equipment Identify Register (EIR): it is a database which stores information for the identification of mobile units. It maintains a database of Electronic Serial Number which is unique to mobile unit which prevent its theft and malicious use.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Wireless Components Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) : This component refers to the regular wired line telecommunication network which is commonly accessed by landline calls. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN): It is a wired line network which provides enhanced digital services to subscribers. Short Message Entity (SME): This is a part of the System Message Service (SMS), which looks after text messages.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Wireless Components Message Center (MC) : This unit stores and forwards short messages to mobile destination. If the destination is unavailable for any reason , it stores the message for later dispatch.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Limited channels must be utilized efficiently. It is done so by Frequency reuse The same radio frequency is used for communication by more than one cell sessions. Mobile cells To achieve frequency reuse, the entire wireless coverage area is divided into cells.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Mobile cells
Personal Communication System (PCS) Mobile cells The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.
D = distance between cells using the same frequency R = cell radius N = reuse pattern (the cluster size, which is 7). Thus, for a 7-cell group with cell radius R = 3 miles, the frequency reuse distance D is 13.74 miles. Personal Communication System (PCS) Frequency reuse
Personal Communication System (PCS) Problems with cellular structure • How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution:Handoff • How to maintain continuous communication between two different service provider? Solution:Roaming • How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution:Location management
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff A process, which allows users to remain in touch, even while breaking the connection with one BS and establishing connection with another BS.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff To keep the conversation going, the Handoff procedure should be completed while the MS (the bus) is in the overlap region.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff issues • Handoff detection • Channel assignment • Radio link transfer
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff detection strategies • Mobile-Controlled handoff (MCHO) • Network-Controlled handoff (NCHO) • Mobile-Assisted handoff (MAHO)
Personal Communication System (PCS) Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO) In this strategy, the MS continuously monitors the radio signal strength and quality of the surrounding BSs. When predefined criteria are met, then the MS checks for the best candidate BS for an available traffic channel and requests the handoff to occur. MCHO is used in DECT and PACS.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO) In this strategy, the surrounding BSs, the MSC or both monitor the radio signal. When the signal’s strength and quality deteriorate below a predefined threshold, the network arranges for a handoff to another channel. NCHO is used in CT-2 Plus and AMPS.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO) It is a variant of NCHO strategy. In this strategy, the network directs the MS to measure the signal from the surrounding BSs and to report those measurements back to the network. The network then uses these measurements to determine where a handoff is required and to which channel. MACHO is used in GSM and IS-95 CDMA.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to the network • Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff The new and the old BSs are connected to the same MSC.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to the network • Intersystem handoff or Inter-MSC handoff The new and the old BSs are connected to different MSCs.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to link transfer • Hard handoff The MU connects with only one BS at a time, and there is usually some interruption in the conversation during the link transition. • Soft handoff The two BSs are briefly simultaneously connected to the MU while crossing the cell boundary. As soon as the mobile's link with the new BS is acceptable, the initial BS disengages from the MU.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to link transfer Hard handoff • MU temporarily suspends the voice conversation by sending a link suspend message to the old BS. • MU sends a handoff request message through an idle time slot of the new BS to the network. • The new BS sends a handoff ack message and marks the slot busy. • The MU returns the old assigned channel by sending a link resume message to the old BS.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to link transfer Hard handoff • MU continues voice communication while the network prepares for the handoff. • Upon receipt of a handoff request message, the new BS sends a handoff ack message and reconfigures itself to effect the handoff. • The MSC inserts a bridge into the conversation path and bridges the new BS. • Finally, the network informs the MU to execute the handoff via both the new and old BSs by sending the handoff execute message.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to link transfer Hard handoff • MU releases the old channel by sending an access release message to the old BS. • Once the MU has made the transfer to the new BS, it sends the network a handoff complete message through the new channel, and resumes the voice communication. The network removes the bridge from the path and frees up the resources associated with the old channel.
Personal Communication System (PCS) Handoff types with reference to link transfer Soft handoff • MU sends a pilot strength measurement message to the old BS, indicating the new BS to be added. • The old BS sends a handoff request message to the MSC. If the MSC accepts the handoff request, it sends a handoff request message to the new BS. • The BS sends a null traffic message to the MU to prepare the establishment of the communication link.