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Undergraduate School of Criminal Justice. Unit 3 Seminar. Professor Chris Lim, MACJ, Ph.D.(ABD). Email: Seminar Rules. Refrain from “SIDEBARS” and “INAPPRIATE” comments. No personal discussion No obscenities; No personal attacks.

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Undergraduate School of Criminal Justice

Unit 3 Seminar


Chris Lim, MACJ, Ph.D.(ABD)


seminar rules
Seminar Rules
  • Refrain from “SIDEBARS” and “INAPPRIATE” comments.
  • No personal discussion
  • No obscenities;
  • No personal attacks.
  • Acceptable! - Jokes are lovely, friendly teasing is fine.
  • Our seminars have live audio-you will be able to hear me! Students will use the message area to type in questions and comments.
  • Seminar schedule
    • 10 minutes for Q&A
    • 40 minutes of topics
    • 10 minutes for more Q&A and wrap up
    • We use the entire hour!

*Schedule can be changed at anytime at instructor’s discretions

outline the processes and problems
Outline: The Processes and Problems
  • Construct the Research Question(s)
  • Determine the Research Strategy
  • Assure that the Research is Ethical
unit 2 concepts variables
Unit 2 –Concepts & Variables

One of the challenges of research is being able to identify appropriate variables for the concepts you want to study. 

  • What is concept?
  • What is variable?

The Language of Research

  • Concept - a mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feelings, or ideas
  • Conceptualization - the process of specifying what we mean by a term
    • Deductive research - translates portions of an abstract theory into specific variables that can be used in testable hypotheses
    • Inductive research - important part of the process used to make sense of related observations
the language of research
The Language of Research
  • What is a Variable
    • Characteristic or concept that is measured
    • Is not the same for everyone in the study
  • What is an Independent (IV) Variable?
    • Cause
  • What is a Dependent (DV) Variable?
    • Effect
  • To use deductive reasoning, first state a hypothesis that is derived from propositions presented in a theory
    • Statement about empirical reality, involving a relationship between two or more variables (called “independent” and “dependent” variables)
    • It can also be understood as a statement about what you expect your data to show, based on the theory you are testing
    • We use variables in formulating hypotheses and research questions (We also use variables to measure other important concepts in research.)
  • A hypothesis
    • implies that a change in one variable is related to a change in the other variable
    • is a declarative statement – a complete sentence
    • not only proposes that two variables are related, but also proposes the direction of the relationship
independent and dependent variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Independent variable (IV)
    • A variable that is hypothesized to cause, or lead to, variation in another variable.
  • Dependent variable (DV)
    • A variable that is hypothesized to vary depending on or under the influence of another variable
    • A phenomenon you want to explain
  • May also think of IVs and DVs in terms of …..
    • Cause (IV) and Effect (DV)
    • If-then statements: If the IV increases/decreases/changes then the DV increases/decreases/changes.
    • Grammar: Subject (IV), verb (“causes” or “predicts”), Object (DV)
  • Most concepts can be either IV or DV, depending on the specific study and population
ways to understand a hypothesis
Ways to Understand a Hypothesis
  • Cause (IV) and effect (DV)
    • Ethnicity(IV/cause)influences one’s Attitude toward the Death Penalty (DV/effect).
  • If-then:
    • If Age(IV) increases, then Attitude toward the Death Penalty (DV) changes.
  • Grammar: subject (IV), verb, object (DV)
    • Ethnicity(IV/ subject) influences (verb) ones Attitude toward the Death Penalty (DV/object).
unlocking the keys to success
Unlocking the Keys to Success!
  • Please remember to contact me if you have questions or if you need help with anything.
  • Each class you successfully complete unlocks another piece of your future! Have a great term and I look forward to working with all of you!
Thank you for your participation!Don’t forget to do your assignments and submit them promptly.See you next week and have a great week!