Conditionals I, II, and III

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# Conditionals I, II, and III - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Conditionals I, II, and III. (A Review). IF and THEN Clauses. Conditional sentences have at least two clauses: IF clauses and THEN clauses. Examples: If I go into town tomorrow, then I will see a movie. If he spoke Chinese, then he would work as a guide in China.

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### Conditionals I, II, and III

(A Review)

IF and THEN Clauses
• Conditional sentences have at least two clauses: IF clauses and THEN clauses.
• Examples:

If I go into town tomorrow, then I will see a movie.

If he spoke Chinese, then he would work as a guide in China.

If they had been faster, then they would have won the race.

IF Clauses (the condition)
• IF clauses present the condition.
• Examples:

If I go into town tomorrow…

If he spoke Chinese…

THEN Clauses (the results)
• THEN clauses present the results.
• Examples:

… then I will see a movie.

…. then he would work as a guide in China.

… then they would have won the race.

IF and THEN Clauses
• The word “then” is optional, but the clause is still the result of the condition. So it is a “THEN” clause, without the word “then.”
• There are special rules for leaving out the word “if”. We will learn them later.
Remember:
• The four words that NEVER (well, almost never) appear in the IF clause are:

will, won’t, would, wouldn’t

• Example:

If we will see it, we will be angry.

Conditional I (present/future – possible)
• When something is possible now or in the future
• Form:

If (present) then will V.

• Example:

If she studies, she will pass the geography test. (It is possible !!)

Unless
• Unless = if not
• Example:

If we don’tfinish soon, we will miss the train.

Unless we finish soon, we will miss the train.

Temporals
• Temporals are time expressions.

(Examples: before, until, after, by the time, etc.)

• When they refer to the future, they are like Conditional I: Temporal (present), will V.
• Examples:

Untilhe arrives, I will read a book.

They will make a cake before they go.

Conditional II(present/future – impossible)
• When something is NOT possible now, or in the future.
• Form:

If (past) then would V.

• Example:

If he spoke Chinese, he would work as a guide in China. (Fact: He doesn’t speak Chinese, so it’s impossible.)

The Great Wall of China

With permission from

Special Rules for Conditional II
• “To be” is always “were”

Example: If he were here, he would do it.

(Fact: He’s not here, so it’s impossible.)

• You can drop the “if” by moving the “were” to the front.

Example: Were he here, he would do it.

wish+ (past)
• Unlike a hope (which is possible), a wish usually will not come true. In general, you wish for a miracle, something that is impossible.
• Examples:

I wish I were in Costa Rica. (I’m not there.)

He wishes he spoke Chinese. (He doesn’t.)

would rather
• “Would rather” is like Conditional II, wishing for something that is probably impossible.
• Form: Subject 1 would rather subject 2 (past).

Example: I would rather he came right now. (Fact: He probably won’t.)

• would rather = ‘d rather

Example: I’d rather he came right now.

Conditional III(past – impossible)
• “Making believe” about the past, assuming something that wasn’t true
• Form:

If Past perfect, then would + present perfect.

• Example:

If we had studied, we would have passed the exam. (Fact: We didn’t study and we didn’t pass the exam.)

Where does the “not” go?
• If the girl hadnot looked both ways when she crossed the street, a car would have hit her. (Fact: She did look both ways, so a car did not hit her.)
• If the boys had practiced more, they would not have lost the game. (Fact: They did not practice enough, so they lost the game.)
Special Rules for Conditional III
• You can drop the “if” by moving the “had” to the front.
• Example:

If he hadbeen there, we would have done it.

Had he been there, we would have done it.

• Be careful !! Although you are starting with a “little verb”, this is not a question !!
Good Luck !!Just remember to ask yourself:
• Is the situation possible or impossible?
• Is the situation in the past or in the present/future?
Remember !!

The four words that NEVER (well, almost never) appear in the IF clause are:

will, won’t, would, wouldn’t