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Conditionals I, II, and III. (A Review). IF and THEN Clauses. Conditional sentences have at least two clauses: IF clauses and THEN clauses. Examples: If I go into town tomorrow, then I will see a movie. If he spoke Chinese, then he would work as a guide in China.

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if and then clauses
IF and THEN Clauses
  • Conditional sentences have at least two clauses: IF clauses and THEN clauses.
  • Examples:

If I go into town tomorrow, then I will see a movie.

If he spoke Chinese, then he would work as a guide in China.

If they had been faster, then they would have won the race.

if clauses the condition
IF Clauses (the condition)
  • IF clauses present the condition.
  • Examples:

If I go into town tomorrow…

If he spoke Chinese…

If they had been faster…

then clauses the results
THEN Clauses (the results)
  • THEN clauses present the results.
  • Examples:

… then I will see a movie.

…. then he would work as a guide in China.

… then they would have won the race.

if and then clauses1
IF and THEN Clauses
  • The word “then” is optional, but the clause is still the result of the condition. So it is a “THEN” clause, without the word “then.”
  • There are special rules for leaving out the word “if”. We will learn them later.
remember
Remember:
  • The four words that NEVER (well, almost never) appear in the IF clause are:

will, won’t, would, wouldn’t

  • Example:

If we will see it, we will be angry.

conditional i present future possible
Conditional I (present/future – possible)
  • When something is possible now or in the future
  • Form:

If (present) then will V.

  • Example:

If she studies, she will pass the geography test. (It is possible !!)

unless
Unless
  • Unless = if not
  • Example:

If we don’tfinish soon, we will miss the train.

Unless we finish soon, we will miss the train.

temporals
Temporals
  • Temporals are time expressions.

(Examples: before, until, after, by the time, etc.)

  • When they refer to the future, they are like Conditional I: Temporal (present), will V.
  • Examples:

Untilhe arrives, I will read a book.

They will make a cake before they go.

conditional ii present future impossible
Conditional II(present/future – impossible)
  • When something is NOT possible now, or in the future.
  • Form:

If (past) then would V.

  • Example:

If he spoke Chinese, he would work as a guide in China. (Fact: He doesn’t speak Chinese, so it’s impossible.)

The Great Wall of China

With permission from

www.adcsoft.com/bjigsawpictures.html

special rules for conditional ii
Special Rules for Conditional II
  • “To be” is always “were”

Example: If he were here, he would do it.

(Fact: He’s not here, so it’s impossible.)

  • You can drop the “if” by moving the “were” to the front.

Example: Were he here, he would do it.

wish past
wish+ (past)
  • Unlike a hope (which is possible), a wish usually will not come true. In general, you wish for a miracle, something that is impossible.
  • Examples:

I wish I were in Costa Rica. (I’m not there.)

He wishes he spoke Chinese. (He doesn’t.)

would rather
would rather
  • “Would rather” is like Conditional II, wishing for something that is probably impossible.
  • Form: Subject 1 would rather subject 2 (past).

Example: I would rather he came right now. (Fact: He probably won’t.)

  • would rather = ‘d rather

Example: I’d rather he came right now.

conditional iii past impossible
Conditional III(past – impossible)
  • “Making believe” about the past, assuming something that wasn’t true
  • Form:

If Past perfect, then would + present perfect.

  • Example:

If we had studied, we would have passed the exam. (Fact: We didn’t study and we didn’t pass the exam.)

where does the not go
Where does the “not” go?
  • If the girl hadnot looked both ways when she crossed the street, a car would have hit her. (Fact: She did look both ways, so a car did not hit her.)
  • If the boys had practiced more, they would not have lost the game. (Fact: They did not practice enough, so they lost the game.)
special rules for conditional iii
Special Rules for Conditional III
  • You can drop the “if” by moving the “had” to the front.
  • Example:

If he hadbeen there, we would have done it.

Had he been there, we would have done it.

  • Be careful !! Although you are starting with a “little verb”, this is not a question !!
good luck just remember to ask yourself
Good Luck !!Just remember to ask yourself:
  • Is the situation possible or impossible?
  • Is the situation in the past or in the present/future?
remember1
Remember !!

The four words that NEVER (well, almost never) appear in the IF clause are:

will, won’t, would, wouldn’t