Mary, Model of Faith“The Year of Faith through the Eyes of Mary” Ministry Formation Institute – Diocese of San Bernardino XII Annual Theological Symposium April 27, 2013 Fr. Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D. http://catholic-resources.org
Prayer: Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you.Blessed are you among women,and blessed is the fruit of your womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.
Symposium: Four Sessions • Mary in the New Testament • Surprisingly little on Mary (except in Luke & John) • Mary in the Early Church • Debates about Jesus lead to teachings about Mary (Lunch break) • Development of Marian Dogmas • Dignity of Mary is emphasized more & more • Mary in the Church Today • Role model for believers, for living our FAITH
MARY in the NT: Overview • Paul’s Letters • Only one oblique reference in Gal 4 • Four Gospels • Mark: very little; quite negative! • Matthew: a bit more, esp. at birth of Jesus • Luke/Acts: much more, esp. Luke 1-2 & Acts 1-2 • John: “mother”; only at Cana & Crucifixion • Other NT Writings • Catholic Letters: no mention! • Revelation: woman clothed with the sun?
Oldest Parts of NT: Paul’s Letters • Letters by or attributed to Paul: • Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians • Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians • 1 Thessalonians & 2 Thessalonians • 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon • Paul NEVER names Mary or even mentions the Mother of Jesus • Gal 4:4-5 – only allusion: Jesus was “born of a woman” • Cf. Rom 16:6 – a different “Mary” in the Church in Rome • Other Pauline texts will later be indirectly relevant to Mariology
Galatians 4:1-7 (esp. vv. 4-5; NRSV transl.) 1 My point is this: heirs, as long as they are minors, are no better than slaves, though they are the owners of all the property; 2 but they remain under guardians and trustees until the date set by the father. 3 So with us; while we were minors, we were enslaved to the elemental spirits of the world. 4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 5 in order to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as children. 6 And because you are children, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" 7 So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God.
Women in the 4 Gospels: Overview • Mark and Matthew: Fairly Few Women • Some named, some anonymous, some fictional • See http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/Synoptics_Women.htm • LUKE: Many More Women, in Prominent Roles • Some in stories from Mark (and usually also in Matthew) • Some in stories from “Q” source (also in Matt, but not Mark) • Many in stories found only in Luke (not in Matt or Mark) • JOHN: Fewer Women, but Highly Important Roles • John’s Gospel overall has fewer but longer stories!
The Mother of Jesus in MARK • Jesus’ family (anonymous) in Mark 3:19b-21 • “Then he went home / and the crowd came together again, so that they could not even eat. / When his family heard it, they went out to restrain him, for people were saying, ‘He has gone out of his mind.’ ” (not in Matt, Luke, or John!) • Jesus’ mother (anonymous) in Mark 3:31-35 • “Then his mother and his brothers came; and standing outside, they sent to him and called him. / A crowd was sitting around him; and they said to him, "Your mother and your brothers [and sisters] are outside, asking for you." / And he replied, "Who are my mother and my brothers?" / And looking at those who sat around him, he said, "Here are my mother and my brothers! / Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother.’ ” • Similar in Matt 12:46-50; shorter in Luke 8:19-21 • Mary mentioned only indirectly (“off-stage”) in Mark 6:3 • “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Maryand brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here with us?” (cf. Matt 13:54-58)
Women at the Cross in MARK • Mark 15:40-41 – Witnesses of Jesus’ Crucifixion • “There were also women looking on from a distance; among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome. / These used to follow him and provided for him when he was in Galilee; and there were many other women who had come up with him to Jerusalem” • Similar in Matt 27:55-56; John 19:25-27; anon. in Luke 23:49 • No mention of Mary of Nazareth, mother of Jesus! • No women “near” or “at the foot of the cross” (only in John)
Women at the Tomb in MARK • Mark 15:47 – Witnesses of Jesus’ Burial • “Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where the body was laid.” (again, not the Mother of Jesus) • Similar in Matt 27:61; anon. in Luke 23:55-56 • Mark 16:1-8 – Witnesses of the Empty Tomb • “When the sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, so that they might go and anoint him…” • Similar in Matt 28:1-8; not named until Luke 24:10-11 • [Mark 16:9-11 – Jesus appears to two Marys – added 2nd Cent.]
Additional Women in MATTHEW ? • Overview: • Four OT Women mentioned in Genealogy of Jesus • Mary, mother of Jesus, mentioned in Infancy Narrative • No additional namedwomen characters in Matthew! • A few new stories involving anonymous women • Four OT Women in Genealogy (Matt 1:1-17): • Tamar (Matt 1:3; see Gen 38) • Rahab (Matt 1:5a; see Josh 2) • Ruth (Matt 1:5b; see Ruth 2–4) • Wife of Uriah[Bathsheba] (Matt 1:6; see 2 Sam 11–12)
Mary, Mother of Jesus, in MATTHEW • Mary Named in Matthew’s Infancy Narrative (4x): • Matt 1:16 – Near end of Genealogy: “...Joseph the husband of MARY, of whom Jesus was born…” • Matt 1:18-25 – At the birth of Jesus: “When his mother MARY had been engaged to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit... ‘Do not be afraid to take MARY as your wife… She will bear a son and you are to name him Jesus…’ ‘Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son...’ (citing Isa 7:14 LXX). When Joseph awoke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him; he took her as his wife, but had no marital relations with her until she had borne a son; and he named him Jesus.”
Mary, Mother of Jesus, in MATTHEW • Mary in Matthew’s Infancy Narrative (cont.): • Matt 2:11a – At the Magi's Visit: “On entering the house, they saw the child with MARY his mother; and they knelt down and paid him homage.” • Matt 2:13, 14, 20, 21 – After being told in dreams, Joseph takes “the child and his mother” to Egypt, and later returns to Israel (phrase used 4 times)
More Women Characters in LUKE • Overview: • Elizabeth & Mary • Prophetess Anna • Widow of Nain • Anonymous Sinner who anoints Jesus’ feet • Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna • Martha & Mary of Bethany • Complete List (on Fr. Just’s website): • http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/Synoptics_Women.htm
Elizabeth & Mary in LUKE • Zechariah’s wife Elizabeth is named; both are said to be righteous in old age (Luke 1:5-7) • Angel Gabriel and Zechariah each mention Elizabeth briefly (Luke 1:13, 18) • Elizabeth conceives and praises God for taking away her “disgrace” (being barren; Luke 1:24-25) • Annunciation: Gabriel visits Mary to proclaim Jesus’ birth; Mary agrees to do God’s will (Luke 1:26-38)
Annunciation to Mary (Luke 1:26-38) • In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth, 27 to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. 28 And he came to her and said, “Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you.” 29 But she was much perplexed by his words and pondered what sort of greeting this might be. 30 The angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31 And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus. 32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David. 33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.”
Annunciation (Luke 1:26-38, cont.) • 34 Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I am a virgin?” 35 The angel said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God. 36 And now, your relative Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son; and this is the sixth month for her who was said to be barren. 37 For nothing will be impossible with God.” 38 Then Mary said, “Here am I, the servant of the Lord; let it be with me according to your word.” Then the angel departed from her.
Elizabeth & Mary in LUKE • Visitation: • Mary visits Elizabeth; Elizabeth praises Mary: • “And blessed is she who BELIEVED that there would be a fulfillment of what was spoken to her by the Lord.” (Luke 1:45) • Mary praises God in her “Magnificat” (Luke 1:46-56) • Elizabeth gives birth to a son: • On the 8th day: circumcision & naming • Elizabeth (surprise!) names him “John” (Luke 1:57-61)
“Magnificat” – Mary’s Prayer 46b “My soul magnifies the Lord 47 and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior, 48 for he has looked with favor on the lowliness of his servant. Surely, from now on all genera-tions will call me blessed; 49 for the Mighty One has done great things for me, and holy is his name. 50 His mercy is for those who fear him from generation to generation. 51 He has shown strength with his arm; he has scattered the proud in the thoughts of their hearts. 52 He has brought down the powerful from their thrones, and lifted up the lowly; 53 he has filled the hungry with good things, and sent the rich away empty. 54 He has helped his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy, 55 according to the promise he made to our ancestors, to Abraham and to his descendants forever.”
Mary & Joseph in LUKE 2 • Joseph & Mary go from Galilee to Judea (2:1-7) • Census: Joseph travels to be “enrolled” in Bethlehem, with Mary, “his betrothed,” who is “with child” (2:5) • While there, she gives birth to her firstborn son • She wraps him in swaddling clothes; lays him in a manger • Angel announces birth of a “savior” to shepherds (2:8-14) • Shepherds go to Bethlehem (2:15-20) • Find Mary & Joseph & the infant (not yet named) • Mary “treasures all things in her heart” (2:19) • 8th Day: Infant circumcised and named Jesus (2:21)
Mary & Joseph in LUKE 2 (cont.) • “They” go to Jerusalem for “their” purification (2:22) • “Purification” is really just for women, 40 days after giving birth • Both “parents” bring Jesus into the temple (2:27) • Simeon praises God, then speaks directly to Mary: “a sword will pierce your own soul too” (2:28-35) • Prophet-widow Anna praises God and speaks to the people about Jesus (2:36-38) • Both “parents” take Jesus to Jerusalem at age 12;only his mother speaks to him in the temple;she then “treasures” everything in her heart (2:41-51)
Infancy Narratives: Matt vs. Luke • Emphases of Matthew 1—2 • Men:Abraham, King David, other kings of Israel, Joseph of Nazareth, Magi from the East, King Herod, chief priests & scribes, Herod Archelaus • Emphases:obstacles, conflict, fear, murder, politics • Emphases of Luke 1—2 • Women:Virgin Mary of Nazareth, Elizabeth, AnnaPoor & Aged: Shepherds, Zechariah, Simeon • Focus:glory, praise, joy; poverty, humility, faith
Refs. to Other Women in LUKE • Galilean women supporting Jesus (Luke 8:1-3): • “…The twelve were with him, as well as some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources.” • A woman in a crowd calls out to Jesus: • “Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts that nursed you!” (Luke 11:27-28)
Male/Female Parallels in Luke: • Luke often PAIRS stories with men & women • Usually reinforcing the same basic point • Sometimes making contrasting points • Luke does so much more than any other Gospel • Mark has a few male/female pairs • Luke sometimes adds the story involving a woman • Luke often adds both stories (not found in other Gospels)
Male/Female Parallels in Luke: • Angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah (1:8-23 )Angel Gabriel appears to Mary (1:26-38 ) • Canticle of Mary (Magnificat; 1:46-55 )Canticle of Zechariah (Benedictus; 1:68-79 )
Women in the Acts of the Apostles • Mary, mother of Jesus • Saphira, wife of Ananias • Pharaoh's daughter • Candace, queen of the Ethiopians • Mary, mother of John Mark • Rhoda, maid in Jerusalem • Tabitha & other widows in Joppa • Timothy’s mother (& grandmother) • Lydia, a proselyte in Philippi • Anonymous, slave girl in Philippi • Damaris, Paul’s convert in Athens • Priscilla & Aquila, in Corinth, Ephesus, Rome • Four Daughters of Evangelist Philip • Paul’s sister • Drusilla, Jewish wife of Governor Felix • Bernice, wife of King Herod AgripppaII
Mary in the Acts of the Apostles • Acts 1:14 – After Jesus’ ascension, eleven apostles remain in Jerusalem “constantly devoting themselves to prayer, together with certain women, including Mary the mother of Jesus, as well as his brothers” (adelphoi, incl. sisters?). • The only mention of Mary in the Acts of the Apostles! • Is she also/still present at Pentecost? • Acts 2:1 – “When the day of Pentecost had come, THEY were all together in one place.”
JOHN: Prominent Female Characters • 2:1-12 Jesus’ Mother at Wedding of Cana • 4:1-42 Samaritan Woman at the Well • [8:1-11] The Woman caught in Adultery • [not originally in John, but a Lukan story?] • 11:1-45 Martha & Mary at raising of Lazarus • 12:1-8 Mary of Bethany anoints Jesus • 19:25b-27 Jesus’ Mother & others at the Cross • 20:1-2 Mary Magdalene at the Empty Tomb • 20:11-18 Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene
John 2:1-12 – Mother of Jesus at Cana • Lectionary for Mass: • Year C: 2nd Sun. in Ord.TimeAlso weekday: Jan. 7 (only if Epiphany is Jan. 8) • “Inaugural Event” in John • First “Sign” Jesus performsin Cana of Galilee • Result: His disciples begin to “believe” in Jesus • Mother’s Role? • Prompts Jesus to act! • Full of faith, tells servants: “Do whatever he tells you!” • Note: She’s never named in John’s Gospel
John 2:1-12 – Wedding at Cana A) 1-2: Temporal & Geographical Setting: “on the third day”; “a wedding in Cana in Galilee” B) 3-4: MOTHER of Jesus asks him about lack of more wine; Jesus responds: “...My hour has not yet come.” C) 5: MOTHER tells servants: “Do whatever he tells you.” D) 6: Details about Props: six stone water jars, holding 2 or 3 ‘measures’ (20-30 gallons) each, for Jewish purity rituals. C') 7-8: JESUS tells servants what to do, and they do it. B') 9-10: Steward tells Bridegroom about quality of new wine: “...you have kept the good wine until now.” A') 11-12: Theological Summary: “the beginning of his SIGNS in Cana in Galilee”; “he revealed his glory; his disciples believed in him”
John 19:25b-27 – Women at the Cross William Blake Jacques Tissot
John 19:25b-27 – Women at the Cross • Lectionary for Mass: • Good Friday: part of the full Passion Proclamation • Jesus’ MOTHER and Other Women • “Meanwhile, standing near the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.” (v. 25b) • “When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing beside her, he said to his mother, ‘Woman, here is your son.’ / Then he said to the disciple, ‘Here is your mother.’ And from that hour the disciple took her into his own home.” (vv. 26-27)
Mary in the Rest of the NT? • Recall Paul’s Letters: only Gal 4:4-5! • “Catholic Epistles” or “General Letters”:Hebrews, James, 1/2 Peter, 1/2/3 John, Jude • Mary never named; No refs. to Jesus’ mother in any way! • Wow! Why Not? • Hebrews 7 even downplays physical ancestry! • [King Melchizedek…] “Without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God, he remains a priest forever.”
Mary in the Book of Revelation? • Contrasts: Bad Women vs. Good Women • Babylon (Rome) as a Harlot • New Jerusalem as a Bride • Chap. 12 • “A great portent appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. She was pregnant and was crying out in birthpangs, in the agony of giving birth...” • Not explicitly identified as Mary • Orig. ref. maybe to Israel?
Revelation 12 12:1 A great portent appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 2 She was pregnant and was crying out in birthpangs, in the agony of giving birth.3Then another portent appeared in heaven: a great red dragon, with seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads. 4 His tail swept down a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. Then the dragon stood before the woman who was about to bear a child, so that he might devour her child as soon as it was born. 5 And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron. But her child was snatched away and taken to God and to his throne; 6 and the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, so that there she can be nourished for one thousand two hundred sixty days...”
Revelation 12 (cont.) 12:13 So when the dragon saw that he had been thrown down to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. 14But the woman was given the two wings of the great eagle, so that she could fly from the serpent into the wilderness, to her place where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time. 15Then from his mouth the serpent poured water like a river after the woman, to sweep her away with the flood. 16But the earth came to the help of the woman; it opened its mouth and swallowed the river that the dragon had poured from his mouth. 17Then the dragon was angry with the woman, and went off to make war on the rest of her children, those who keep the commandments of God and hold the testimony of Jesus. Cf. 1:5 “Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead…”
Summary and Questions? • Mary in Paul’s Letters? • Mary in Mark & Matthew? • Mary in LUKE’s Gospel? • Mary in JOHN’s Gospel? • Mary in the Acts of the Apostles? • Mary in the Book of Revelation? • Mary in the rest of New Testament?
Part II: Mary in the Early Church • Apocryphal Gospels • Infancy Gospels: Gosp. Thomas & Gosp. James • Patristic Writings • Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Ambrose, Augustine • Ecumenical Councils: • Nicea (325) & Constantinople (381) • Ephesus (431) – Theotokos / Mother of God • Other First-Millennium Texts: • Prayer “Sub tuumpraesidium” • Hymn “Akatistos”
Early Christian Historical Context • Debates on Christology: Who Is Jesus? • As Christianity spreads into Gentile lands • Debates about Jesus’ Identity: God/Man? • Marian dogmas develop slowly in relation to this • Pluralism: Gnostics, Docetists, Arians, etc. • “Orthodox” (“right teaching”) vs.“Heterodox” (“other teaching” – later “heresy”) • Patristic Writings • Mary as the “New Eve”; her obedient “fiat” reverses Eve’s disobedience
Mary in Non-Canonical Gospels • “Non-Canonical” Gospels (not in NT) • Fill in some “gaps” of the canonical Gospels • Infancy Gospel of Thomas • Stories/legends about Jesus’ childhood (age 5-12) • In some of them, his mother Mary also plays a role • G.Th. 11 – Six-year-old Jesus’ mother sends him to draw water; he breaks the pitcher; then brings water back in his cloak! • G.Th. 19 – Jesus at age 12 with his parents in the Jerusalem temple (story similar to Luke 2)
Mary in Non-Canonical Gospels • Infancy Gospel (Proto-Evangelium) of James • Joachim & Anna (first text to name Mary’s parents) • Stories of Mary’s own conception and birth • Child Mary lives in temple of Jerusalem, ages 3 to 12 • Then given in marriage towidower Joseph of Nazareth • Annunciation to Mary • Birth of Jesus • Jesus at age 12 in Jerusalem Temple