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Application of a Model Based Systems Engineering Method to Manage Project Risk. Fred Rojek Booz Allen Hamilton Advanced Risk Management Seminar Applications to Systems Engineering November 8–9 . Thesis.

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application of a model based systems engineering method to manage project risk

Application of a Model Based Systems Engineering Method to Manage Project Risk

Fred Rojek Booz Allen Hamilton

Advanced Risk Management Seminar Applications to Systems Engineering November 8–9

thesis
Thesis
  • Application of a Model Based Systems Engineering method can contribute to the implementation of an effective risk management program because…
agenda
Agenda
  • Systems Engineering Objective
  • Systems Engineering Challenge
  • Essential Elements of a Model Based Systems Engineering Method
  • MBSE Application Example
  • Conclusion
systems engineering s objective
Systems Engineering’s Objective
  • Translate user operational needs into an efficient and cost-effective system solution
  • Capture the solution in a complete and coherent* system documentation** needed to design, integrate, test, operate and logistically support a system that fully meets user operational needs
    • Specification
    • Design
    • Test
    • Operation
    • Support
    • Other Supporting Work Products: Trade Studies, Analyses, Technical Reports, Meeting Minutes…

* Coherent: Composed of mutually dependent parts; making a logical whole; consistent; as a coherent plan, argument, or discourse. Webster Dictionary

** Also known as work products

systems engineering s challenge
Systems Engineering’s Challenge
  • Capture the solution in a complete and coherent system documentation needed to design, integrate, test, operate and logistically support a system…

Systems

Engineering

Processes

systems engineering s challenge6
Systems Engineering’s Challenge
  • System requirements, design data, and information relevant to a wide variety of engineering, technical and domain disciplines
    • Totality of requirements in the thousands (possibly tens of thousands); Often changing, sometimes well into design
    • Dozens (possibly hundreds) of scientists, specialists, engineers, designers, testers, manufacturers…, from multiple & diverse technical disciplines
    • Customers, operators, maintainers, suppliers… with great domain expertise, little engineering expertise (and vice versa)
    • Should tie together into a unified whole
    • Should always be traceable to User Operational Needs
  • Hundreds to thousands of components employing a wide variety of technologies manufactured throughout the country, possibly the world (ex. International Space Station)
  • Never ending issues and risks associated at varying development levels that span a wide range of technical and domain expertise
application of a mbse method to partially address the challenge
Application of a MBSE Method to Partially Address the Challenge

Systems

Engineering

Processes

supports

Model Based

Systems Engineering

Method

essential elements of a mbse method
Essential Elements of a MBSE Method
  • Use of models as the central and unifying element to the development of a system*
  • Application across SE processes
  • Application down and up development levels
  • Application throughout system lifecycle
  • Use of computerized SE tools to support the method

* “…model-based [systems] engineering is about elevating models in the engineering process to a central and governing role in the specification, design, integration, validation, and operation of a system.” Estefan, J.A., Survey of Model Based Systems Engineering Methodologies, INCOSE MBSE Focus Group (http://syseng.omg.org/MBSE_Methodology_Survey_RevA.pdf)

1 models as central and unifying element
1. Models as Central and Unifying Element
  • Well defined, unambiguous language/notation, understood by all stakeholders, to describe and analyze the system
  • Multiple system views to fully communicate system requirements and design
    • Requirements, Behavioral, Structure, Performance, Data, Managerial…
    • Integrated/Traceable; Complimentary; Consistent…non contradictory
  • Underlying structure (or schema) to define model elements, attributes and relationships – Information Model
  • Executability

Models are the primary means of communication with clients, builders, and users; models are the language of the architect. The Art of Systems Architecting, Maier, M., Rechtin, E., CRC Press, 2002

multiple system views to communicate requirements design
Multiple System Views to Communicate Requirements & Design*

Requirements Hierarchy

(System Traceability)

Operations & Logical/Functional

(System Behavior)

Physical Hierarchy

(System Structure)

Verification Requirements

Physical Block Diagram

(System Interconnection)

*Views produced by CORE

integrated
Integrated!

trace to

allocated to

verified by

functional I/O implemented by

Additional Views used as required to communicate other relevant system characteristics

information model example

Function

Requirement

Component

decomposed

by

built from

refined by

Information Model Example*

Interface

performed

by

joined

to

basis

of

results in

results in

causes

causes

verified by

causes

causes

Risk

Verification

Requirement

causes

documented by

fulfilled by

assigned to

resolved by

Document

Organization

Verification

Event

Program

Activity

* Partial View of CORE Schema

information model example13

Function

Requirement

Component

decomposed

by

built from

refined by

Information Model Example*

Interface

performed

by

joined

to

basis

of

results in

results in

generates

generates

verified by

generates

generates

Issue

Verification

Requirement

generates

documented by

fulfilled by

assigned to

resolved by

Document

Organization

Verification

Event

Program

Activity

* Partial View of CORE Schema

2 application across se processes
2. Application Across SE Processes

Systems Engineering Process Model

Requirements

Analysis

Requirements

Models

Functional

Analysis

Behavioral

Models

To Next Development Level

Design/Synthesis

Physical

Models

Safety Analysis

Human Factors

RAM Analysis

Logistic Analysis

EMI Analysis

Assessment

Assessment

Results

.

.

.

System Analysis & Control*

* Trade-off Studies, Risk Management, Interface Management, Configuration Management…

3 application down up development phases

Operational

Test

Concept

3. Application Down & Up Development Phases

Validation Requirements

Validation Results

Verification Requirements

System

Integration &

Verification

System

Design

Verification Results

Product

Design

Product

Integration &

Verification

Verification Requirements

Verification Results

Verification

Requirements

Subsystem

Design

Subsystem

Integration &

Verification

Verification

Results

Verification

Requirements

Component

Design

Component

Integration &

Verification

Verification

Results

Integration & Verification

Decomposition & Design

HW Fab &

Assembly;

SW Code

Part & CSU

Verification

4 application throughout acquisition lifecycle

Sys

Sys

Prod 1

Prod 2

Prod 3

Prod 1

Prod 2

Prod 3

SyS

Subsys 1.1

Subsys 1.2

Subsys 3.1

Subsys 3.2

Subsys 1.2

Subsys 3.1

Subsys 3.2

Subsys 1.1

Prod 1

Prod 2

Prod 3

Comp 1.1.1

Comp 1.1.2

Comp 3.1.1

Comp 3.1.2

Comp 3.1.3

Comp 1.1.2

Comp 3.1.1

Comp 3.1.2.a

Comp 1.1.1

Sys

Prod 1

Prod 2

Prod 3

Subsys 1.1

Subsys 1.2

Subsys 3.1

Subsys 3.2

4. Application Throughout Acquisition Lifecycle

Concept

Refinement

Advanced

Development

Engineering

Design

Integration &

Evaluation

Production

Operation

& Support

Increasing Model Complexity

system development history maintained

Sys

Prod 1

Prod 2

Prod 3

Subsys 1.2

Subsys 3.1

Subsys 3.2

Subsys 1.1

Comp 3.1.3

Comp 1.1.2

Comp 3.1.1

Comp 3.1.2.a

Comp 1.1.1

System Development History Maintained

Concept

Refinement

Advanced

Development

Engineering

Design

Integration &

Evaluation

Production

Operation

& Support

Accumulated System Data & Information (History)

5 use of computerized se tools to support the mbse method
5. Use of Computerized SE Tools to Support the MBSE Method
  • Modeling
    • Support the modeling language and schema; produce the needed system views
    • Maintain horizontal and vertical traceability
  • Data Management
    • Single, central repository to manage all related system data and information
  • Document Generation
    • Automated generation of formal documentation & work products (drawn from central model repository)
      • System/Segment Specification (SSS); Interface Requirements Specification (IRS); Test & Evaluation Plan (TEP); Software Requirements Specification (SRS)...
  • Integral to the SE Environment to support the MBSE method

See Survey of Model Based Systems Engineering Methodologies (http://syseng.omg.org/MBSE_Methodology_Survey_RevA.pdf) for a discussion of commercial tools available that could be used to support MBSE method application

waste management system wms
Waste Management System (WMS)
  • System Mission* - Accept, transport, & dispose of hazardous material in a manner that protects health, safety and the environment; and merits public confidence
  • System Concept

WMS

Transportation

System

Waste

Acceptance

System

Disposal

System

Transport hazardous material from Waste Generation Sites to Disposal System

Interface between Waste Production Sites & Disposal System

Receive and dispose of hazardous material

*Documented in WMS Requirements Document

wms concept of operations
WMS Concept of Operations

Maintenance

Facility

Unloaded waste containers

Unloaded waste containers*

Operations

Center

Disposal

System

Waste

Generation

Site

Loaded waste containers

*Transportation modes include rail, truck, barge; possibly a combination of all three depending upon OS location

Equipment flow

Information flow

transportation system concept model

Transport Equip

Rail or Truck

Equipment

carries

Waste

Container

Transportation SystemConcept Model

Maintenance

Facility

Waste

Generation

Site

xports unloaded containers to

maintains

generates

Disposal

Facility

xports loaded

containers to

coordinates/

controls

stores

Operations

Center

utilizes

contains

Existing

Infrastructure

coordinates/

controls

Waste

Transportation System Components

Waste

Generation

Site Ops

Disposal

Facility Ops

system model views
System Model Views

* All views produced by the CORE SE Tool

system requirements sample
System Requirements (sample)
  • The system shall be capable of:
    • Accepting and receiving 400 tons of waste in 1st year of operations
    • Accepting and receiving 3800 tons in 2nd year of operations
  • Shall be capable of accommodating a range of waste storage and transportation technologies
  • Shall comply with the applicable provisions of:
    • Legislation
    • Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
    • EPA Standards
    • DoT Regulations
    • Association of American Railroads (AAR) Regs
requirements model development
Requirements Model Development

“The WMS shall be capable of receiving waste, mostly by rail, at the system operating conditions and receipt rates specified in…”

“The WMS shall comply with the waste material transportation practices documented in the …”

The Transportation System shall have the capability to store (TBD)% of the rolling stock inventory.

The Transportation System shall be capable of voice communications with rail consists at all times throughout shipment operations.

The Transportation System shall have the capability to store (TBD)% of the waste container inventory.

system behavior model development decomposition

Transportation System Functional Context Diagram

Perform Transportation System Operations

Operate & Maintain Transportation System

System Behavior ModelDevelopment – Decomposition
system behavior model development functional i o
System Behavior ModelDevelopment – Functional I/O

Functional I/O Includes Data, Information, Material

physical model development
Physical Model Development

Transportation System Physical Context Diagram

physical model development31

Physical Model Development

Transportation System Physical Hierarchy

functional allocation

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Functional Allocation

Functions from Behavior Model Allocated to the Operations Center Subsystem

requirements traceability

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Subsystem

Requirements Traceability

Requirements from Requirements Model Trace to Operations Center Functions

structural model development interconnection diagram

Operations Center

Structural Model Development – Interconnection Diagram

Functional I/O Items from Behavior Model Transferred by Interface Links

system specification

SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

FOR THE

Transportation System

Prepared For:

Prepared By:

System Specification

System Performance Specification Documents Requirements*

*Document generated by Computerized SE tool (CORE), drawing data from Central Repository

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Application of a Model Based Systems Engineering methodology can contribute to the implementation of an effective Risk Management program because:
    • Models can effectively communicate system requirements and design detail to all disciplines, at all system levels; Simultaneously accessible to all team members (IPTs, special study groups, analysis teams, etc.) (identification)
      • Executable models allow analysis of system behavior (assessment and analysis)
    • Risk documentation products - identified risks, assessment results, mitigation plans etc. – can become an integral part of the system models, maintained in central repository (management)
    • Risk documentation products can be automatically generated from tools supporting SE environment drawing model data from central repository (management)
  • MBSE methodology allows Risk Management to become an integral part of the overall system development effort, throughout all development phases/levels, throughout the system lifecycle (management)
other model based initiatives you may have heard of
Other Model Based Initiatives (you may have heard of)
  • Model Driven Engineering (MDE)
  • Model Driven Architecture (MDA)1,2
  • Model Driven Development (MDD)1,2
  • Model Based Application Development1
  • Model Based Programming1
  • Object Oriented Systems Engineering Method (OOSEM) using SySML1
  • Rational Unified Process for Systems Engineering (RUP SE)3

How do these differ from MBSE?

or MBE or MDSD

1. Object Management Group (OMG) trademarks (http://www.omg.org/legal/tm_list.htm)

2. MDA & MDD are actually implementations of MDE

3. IBM Rational trademark