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The Code of hammurabi & Assyrians. Objectives, Key terms & People. Objective Explain how early empires arose in Mesopotamia Key Terms & People: Hammurabi’s Code Behistun Rock Chaldeans Sargon the Great Lydians Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar. Fall of sumerian city-states.

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objectives key terms people
Objectives, Key terms & People
  • Objective
    • Explain how early empires arose in Mesopotamia
  • Key Terms & People:
    • Hammurabi’s Code
    • Behistun Rock
    • Chaldeans
    • Sargon the Great
    • Lydians
    • Babylonians
    • Nebuchadnezzar
fall of sumerian city states
Fall of sumerian city-states
  • Around 2350 B.C.
  • Sargon the Great captured the city-states (ruler of Akkad)
  • The Sumerian civilization did not die
    • The rulers of the new kingdoms adopted basic ideas of Sumerian civilization to meet their own needs
babylon
babylon
  • Where the first conquerors of Mesopotamia came from
  • Located upstream from Sumer
babylon1
babylon
  • Babylonians were nomads
  • They quickly adopted the civilized ways of the Sumerians
    • Like what?
    • Ziggurats, art, written laws, literature, cuneiform, irrigated fields and organized society
  • Conquered all of Mesopotamia
    • Why is this important?
    • Civilization spread over a large area
polytheism
polytheism
  • Belief in many gods
  • Each city-state considered itself the property of one god
epic of gilgamesh
Epic of gilgamesh
  • One of the earliest literary works
  • What did it describe?
    • The underworld
major achievements
Major achievements
  • Code of Laws known as Hammurabi’s Code
    • Based on Sumerian city-state laws
    • More complete because it was for an entire empire
    • Why do societies develop laws?
  • Empire
    • State that has conquered other lands and now rules them
hammurabi s code
Hammurabi’s code
  • Written by King Hammurabi
  • Nearly 300 laws
  • He picked out ones he liked from city-states of the empire
  • Written on an 8 foot slab of black rock
  • Why is this important?
    • First written law code-public knowledge
    • Idea of justice required balance
      • Eye for an eye; small crimes get small punishments

http://www.mitchellteachers.org/WorldHistory/AncientEgyptNearEastUnit/PDFs/CourtCaseHarboringSlave.pdf

mesopotamian advancement
Mesopotamian advancement
  • Drew up multiplication & division tables
  • Made geometry calculations
    • Use base of 60
    • Cut circle into 360 degrees
    • 60 minutes in an hour
  • First written records in astronomy
    • Kept records of changing positions of planets and phases of the moon
    • Developed 12 month calendar
behistun rock
Behistun rock
  • Discovered in 1840s by Henry Rawlinson
  • Key to Mesopotamian history
  • Behistan Rock includes eyewitness accounts of a battle and a list of provinces in the empire
  • Used to translate Mesopotamian writing
hittites 1600 1200 b c
Hittites (1600-1200 B.C.)
  • Invaded Northern Mesopotamia about 1600 B.C.
  • Raided Babylon, Syria, Palestine and challenged Egypt’s power
  • By about 1450 B.C. the Hittite Empire included Asia Minor and Northern Syria
  • Just and humane laws
  • Notable architecture
  • Most important discovery
    • Iron=huge advantage over other empires
    • Sharper and stronger than bronze
assyrians 750 612 b c
Assyrians (750-612 B.C.)
  • Came from Northern Mesopotamia
  • Their villages were attacked repeatedly by barbarians from the Northern mountains
  • Assyrians learned to be tough fighters over the centuries of attacks
assyrian army
Assyrian army
  • Soldiers well equipped with iron swords and iron tipped spears
  • Most disciplined army so far
    • Trained to march and fight in tightly organized columns and divisions led by commanders of different ranks
  • Attacking a city
    • March within an arrow’s shot of the wall and on a signal shower the city with arrows
    • Meanwhile, other troops moved to the city gates and hammered them with iron-tipped battering rams
attacking a city cont
Attacking a city (Cont.)
  • Show no mercy
    • Tortured, killed or enslaved the people
    • Assyrians uprooted the conquered people from their homelands, sending great groups of people to distant parts of the empire. Why?
      • To prevent later rebellion
nineveh
Nineveh
  • Assyrian capital city
  • Largest city of its day(3 miles long by 1 mile wide)
  • Housed the treasures of the empire
  • Held world’s largest library
    • King Assurbanipal collected 25,000 clay tablets to create it
chaldeans 612 550 b c
Chaldeans (612-550 B.C)
  • Capital city: Babylon
  • This was 1000 years after Hammurabi
  • Babylon became the center of the empire during this time
king nebuchadnezzar
King nebuchadnezzar
  • Ruled from 605-562 B.C.
  • Rebuilt Babylon
    • Covered the walls of his palace with shining tiles arranged in bright patterns
    • Most impressive part of the palace was the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon
stargazers of babylon
Stargazers of babylon
  • Highest building: a 7 tier ziggurat that was more than 300 feet high and visible for miles
  • Priests observed stars nightly
    • Kept records of positions of stars and planets
    • The rise of each constellation (group of stars) marked a new month in their calendar
    • Belief that stars determined human destiny
    • Chaldeans observed the Zodiac (12 constellations to foretell the future)
    • Nebuchadnezzar consulted the temples star charts carefully in governing his kingdom
lydians
lydians
  • ***Major achievement: began the use of coins in trade
  • How did this help with trade?
    • Got rid of the barter system
  • Official government coinage came into use in about 560 B.C.
  • Coins brought about a money economy
    • Money economy: an economic system based on the use of money
objectives key terms people1
Objectives & key terms/people
  • Explain how early empires arose in Mesopotamia
    • Sargon starts the first empire
  • Hammurabi’s Code
    • First written code of laws based on an eye for an eye
  • BehistunRock
    • Translated Mesopotamian writing
  • Chaldeans
    • Nebuchadnezzar was the ruler
key people
Key people
  • Sargon the Great
    • Conquered the Sumerian city-states
  • Lydians
    • Invented coins
  • Babylonians
    • King was Hammurabi; code of laws
  • Nebuchadnezzar
    • Chaldeans’ leader that built the Hanging Gardens