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What is VoIP?

What is VoIP?

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What is VoIP?

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  1. What is VoIP? VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol), sometimes referred to as Internet telephony, is a method of digitizing voice, encapsulating the digitized voice into packets and transmitting those packets over a packet switched IP network.

  2. Why VoIP? (Key Benefits of VoIP) • Elimination of expensive leased lines, PBXs and PBX lines and PSTN lines with recurring monthly costs • Ease of adds, moves and changes.  • Elimination of costly tie lines between multiple PBXs • Reduction of supported PBXs resulting in the reduction of annual maintenance and support contracts • Reduction of costly long distance charges between branch offices via toll-bypass – sending voice traffic over the existing data network

  3. VoIP Voice Protocols • VoIP uses two common protocols to carry your voice: • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • Real-Time Protocol (RTP) IP UDP RTP Data VoIP Packet

  4. Voice over UDP • UDP was not designed for transporting voice • Due to its quick transporting ability, it is suitable for voice • Basic shortcoming of UDP • No packet loss recovery mechanism • Voice communications can tolerate some loss • Efficient coding techniques can be design • to recover some lost packets • Supporting QoS can reduce the probability of packet loss • No packet ordering scheme • Packets in the same session are unlikely to follow different paths …we still like to resolve some of the shortcomings of UDP

  5. Real-Time Transport Protocol • Provides end-to-end network functions and delivery services for delay-sensitive, real-time data, such as voice and video • Works with queuing to prioritize voice traffic over other traffic • Services include: • Payload type identification • Sequence numbering • Timestamping • Delivery monitoring

  6. VOIP Signaling Protocols • H.323 - ITU standard, ISDN-based, distributed topology - 90%+ of all Service Provider VoIP networks - The current interconnect for CallManager to Service Providers - Useful for video applications • SCCP (Skinny Protocol) - Centralized Call-Control architecture. - CallManager controls all features. - over 700,000 IP Phones deployed • MGCP - IETF RFC2705 - Centralized Call-Control Architecture - Call-Agents (MGC) & Gateways (MG) • SIP - IETF RFC2543 - Distributed Call-Control - Used for more than VoIP…SIMPLE: Instant Messaging / Presence

  7. PSTN WAN VOIP Signaling Protocols PSTN H.323 between Cisco CME systems H.323 H.323 WAN H.323 SIP PSTN Gateway and IP to IP Gateway functionality PSTN

  8. VOIP Topology that will be created in lab. Analog Phones 1751 Router with CCME ATA 186 402 55575432 PSTN 301 302 401 201 202 101 102 27575432

  9. Cisco IP Phone 7905

  10. Cisco IP Phone 7905

  11. Cisco IP Phone 7960

  12. Cisco IP Phone 7960

  13. Cisco ATA 186

  14. Panasonic PBX 3/8

  15. Voice Dial Plans, Configuring Voice Interfaces and Dial Peers Cisco Networking Academy Program

  16. Analog Voice Interface: FXS • Connects directly to analog phones or faxes • Used to provision local service • Provides power, call progress tones, and dial tone FXS FXS FXS • Foreign exchange station interface

  17. Analog Voice Interface: FXO FXO FXO PSTN • Foreign exchange office interface • Connects directly to office equipment • Used to make and receive calls from the PSTN • Can be used to connect through the PSTN to another site • Answer inbound calls arriving

  18. Dial-Peer Call Legs

  19. Configuring Dial Peers

  20. Understanding Dial Peers • Cisco voice-enabled routers support two types of dial peers: • POTS dial peers: Connect to a traditional telephony network • VoIP dial peers: Connect over a packet network 2600XM 3700 1700

  21. Configuring POTS Dial Peers

  22. Configuring VoIP Dial Peers

  23. Default Dial Peer 0

  24. PLAR Connection

  25. Configuring Cisco CallManager Express (CME) Cisco Networking Academy Program

  26. Overview of Cisco CME

  27. What is Cisco CallManager Express? Cisco CME • Call processing for small to medium sized deployments • VoIP integrated solution • Up to 120 IP phones • IOS based solution Trunks PSTN WAN

  28. Cisco CallManager Express Requirements • Select IOS based platform • Multiservice access routers 2600XM • IOS platform • 12.3(7)T or greater is recommended • IP Voice • Cisco CME software and files • GUI files • Firmware 3700 1700

  29. Cisco CME Features and Functionality

  30. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) FAX Analog Phones ATA H.323 Or SIP ATA Skinny Analog Skinny

  31. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (1) H.323 Protocol (2) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (3) Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) • Cisco proprietary • Call Control protocol • Lightweight protocol • Low memory requirements • Low complexity • Low CPU requirements

  32. Supported Protocols and Integration Options (Cont.) • Cisco CME does not support remotely registered phones CME PSTN X X WAN Remote Phones Local Phones

  33. DHCP Service Setup Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol • Assigns an IP addresses and subnet masks for one or more subnets • Optionally can assign a default gateway • Optionally can assign DNS servers • Optionally can assign other commonly used servers • The DHCP scope can be customized to assign a TFTP server to IP phones • Best practice is to configure a DHCP scope for the IP phones

  34. Range of available IP addresses The subnet mask A default gateway The address of the TFTP server DNS server(s) DHCP Service Setup (Cont.): Phone Bootup On the Cisco CME router a DHCP Scope can be configured. The scope should define the following: The IP phone powers on The phone performs a Power on Self Test (POST) The phone boots up The phone initializes the IP stack Continued next slide…

  35. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.): Phone Bootup (Cont.) IP phone send DHCP Discover broadcast requesting an IP address DHCP server selects a free IP address from the pool and sends along with the other scope parameters as a DHCP Offer The IP phone initializes applies the IP configuration to the IP stack The IP phone requests it configuration file from the TFTP server

  36. DHCP Service Setup (Cont.) • Option 150 sets the TFTP server on the IP phone • The TFTP server contains the configuration files and firmware for the IP phone Configuring DHCP on an IOS router CMERouter(config)#ip dhcp exluded-address CMERouter(config)#ip dhcp pool mypool CMERouter(dhcp-config)#network CMERouter(dhcp-config)#option 150 ip CMERouter(dhcp-config)#default-router CMERouter(dhcp-config)#dns-server CMERouter(dhcp-config)#exit

  37. IP Phone Registration

  38. Files • Firmware • SEPAAAABBBBCCCC.cnf.xml • XmlDefault.cnf.xml • SCCP-dictionary.xml • Phonemodel-dictionary.xml • Phonemodel-tones.xml • Files critical to the IP phone SEP XML TFTP Server

  39. 7905 Firmware 7940 Firmware 7960 Firmware Files (Cont.): Firmware CMERouter1#show flash -#- --length-- -----date/time------ path 1 399514 Mar 1 2002 12:56:28 P00305000301.sbn 2 22649180 Mar 1 2002 12:38:00 c3725-ipvoice-mz.123-7.T.bin 3 321939 Mar 1 2002 12:55:58 CP7902010200SCCP031023A.sbin 4 317171 Mar 1 2002 12:56:06 CP7905010200SCCP031023A.sbin 5 317968 Mar 1 2002 12:56:10 CP7912010200SCCP031023A.sbin 6 700651 Mar 1 2002 12:56:18 7 369950 Mar 1 2002 12:56:22 P00303020214.bin 8 333822 Mar 1 2002 12:56:30 P00403020214.bin 9 47904 Mar 1 2002 12:56:54 S00103020002.bin 10 301298 Mar 1 2002 12:56:56 ata18x-v2-16-ms-030327b.zup 11 496521 Mar 1 2002 12:57:22 12 1908762 Mar 1 2002 12:56:54 P00503010100.bin 13 21 Mar 1 2002 12:56:18 OS7920.txt 14 839984 Mar 1 2002 12:57:18 cmterm_7920.3.3-01-06.bin … … 33 307067 Mar 1 2002 12:56:02 CP79050101SCCP030530B31.zup 34 710144 Mar 1 2002 12:57:06 cme-gui-3.1.1.tar • Firmware is installed in flash with the Cisco CME software or individually as needed • Served up by the TFTP server on the Cisco CME router • The command tftp-server flash:firmware-file-name

  40. SEP XML Files (Cont.): Device Configuration XML File <device> <devicePool> <callManagerGroup> <members> <member priority="0"> <callManager> <ports>   <ethernetPhonePort>2000</ethernetPhonePort>   </ports>   <processNodeName></processNodeName>   </callManager>   </member>   </members>   </callManagerGroup>   </devicePool>   <versionStamp>{Jan 01 2002 00:00:00}</versionStamp>   <loadInformation>P00303020214</loadInformation> - <userLocale>   <name>English_United_States</name>   <langCode>en</langCode>   </userLocale>   <networkLocale>United_States</networkLocale>   <idleTimeout>0</idleTimeout>   <authenticationURL />   <directoryURL></directoryURL>   <idleURL />   <informationURL />   <messagesURL />   <proxyServerURL />   <servicesURL />   </device> SEPXXXXXXXXXXXX.cnf.xml *XXXXXXXXXXX = to the MAC address

  41. Default XML Files (Cont.): Default XML File XMLDefault.cnf.xml <Default> <callManagerGroup> <members> <member priority="0"> <callManager> <ports> <ethernetPhonePort>2000</ethernetPhonePort> </ports> <processNodeName></processNodeName> </callManager> </member> </members> </callManagerGroup> <loadInformation6 model="IP Phone 7910">P00403020214</loadInformation6> <loadInformation124 model="Addon 7914"></loadInformation124> <loadInformation9 model="IP Phone 7935"></loadInformation9> <loadInformation8 model="IP Phone 7940">P00303020214</loadInformation8> <loadInformation7 model="IP Phone 7960">P00303020214</loadInformation7> <loadInformation20000 model="IP Phone 7905"></loadInformation20000> <loadInformation30008 model="IP Phone 7902"></loadInformation30008> <loadInformation30002 model="IP Phone 7920"></loadInformation30002> <loadInformation30019 model="IP Phone 7936"></loadInformation30019> <loadInformation30007 model="IP Phone 7912"></loadInformation30007> </Default> * Notice there is no ATA or 7914

  42. Language XML Files (Cont.): Language Specific XML Files <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> <phrases> <phrase i="173" t="Login"/> <phrase i="172" t="Flash"/> <phrase i="171" t="Acct"/> <phrase i="170" t="Incompatible device type"/> <phrase i="169" t="Another Barge exists"/> <phrase i="168" t="Failed to setup Barge"/> <phrase i="167" t="Barge" /> <phrase i="166" t="Network congestion,rerouting" /> <phrase i="165" t="CallBack" /> <phrase i="164" t="SAC" /> <phrase i="163" t="DND" /> <phrase i="162" t="TrnsfVM" /> <phrase i="161" t="SetWtch" /> <phrase i="160" t="Intrcpt" /> <phrase i="159" t="ImmDiv" /> <phrase i="158" t="Voicemail"/> <phrase i="157" t="RmLstC"/> <phrase i="156" t="Unknown Number"/> <phrase i="155" t="Not Enough Bandwidth"/> <phrase i="154" t="Private"/> <phrase i="153" t="Park Number"/> <phrase i="152" t="Conference"/> <phrase i="151" t="Error Mismatch"/> <phrase i="150" t="Error Unknown"/> <phrase i="149" t="Error Pass Limit"/> … 7960-dictionary.xml SCCP-dictionary.xml Contents will vary based upon language selected with the user-locale command

  43. Call Progress XML Files (Cont.): Call Progress XML File <tones> <tone c1="30831" i1="-2032" c2="30467" i2="-1104" d="2" t="ringing"> <part m="on" t="2000"/> <part m="off" t="4000"/> <repeat c="65535"/> </tone> <tone c1="30467" i1="-1104" c2="28959" i2="-1404" d="2" t="reorder"> <part m="on" t="250"/> <part m="off" t="250"/> <repeat c="65535"/> </tone> <tone c1="30467" i1="-1104" c2="28959" i2="-1404" d="2" t="busy"> <part m="on" t="500"/> <part m="off" t="500"/> <repeat c="65535"/> </tone> <tone c1="30743" i1="-1384" c2="29780" i2="-1252" d="2" t="odial"> <part m="on" t="65535"/> <repeat c="65535"/> </tone> <tone c1="30831" i1="-2032" c2="31538" i2="-814" d="2" t="idial"> <part m="on" t="65535"/> <repeat c="65535"/> </tone> </tones> 7960-tones.xml Contents will vary based upon call progress tones selected with the network-locale command

  44. Ephone-dn and Ephone

  45. Ephone-dn • A DN and Extension number are equivalent • Line and voice port are equivalent • Has a unique tag or sequence number assigned when the ephone-dn is created • Can have one or more telephone numbers associated with it • Can have one voice channel or two voice channels • Creates one or more telephony system pots dial peers when the ephone-dn is initially configured Primary extension number on a single line ephone-dn that can make or receive one call at a time DN1 ephone-dn Primary/Secondary extensions configured on a single line ephone-dn where the primary is an internal extension number and the secondary is an E.164 number DN1 and DN2 ephone-dn DN1 One phone extension on a dual line ephone-dn for ephone-dns that need call waiting, consultative transfer and conferencing DN1 ephone-dn

  46. Ephone-dn (Cont.) router(config)# ephone-dn dn-tag [dual-line] • This command is used to create an extension (ephone-dn) for a Cisco IP phone line, an intercom line, a paging line, a voice-mail port, or a message-waiting indicator (MWI). router(config-ephone-dn)# number dn-number secondary dn-number [no-reg [both | primary]] • This command is used to associate a DN number with the ephone-dn instance

  47. Ephone 7960 • Software configuration of a physical phone • Has a unique tag or sequence number assigned when the ephone is created • Can be an IP phone, analog phone attached to an ATA • The MAC of the IP phone or ATA is used to tie the software configuration to the hardware • The hardware is auto detected for all supported models except the ATA and 7914 expansion module • Can have one or more ephone-dn(s) associated with the ephone • Number of line buttons will vary based on the hardware DN DN Button 1 Button 4 DN DN Button 2 Button 5 DN DN Button 3 Button 6 MAC 000F.2470.F92A 7912 DN Button 1 MAC 000F.2470.F92B ATA 188 DN Analog 1 MAC 000F.2470.F92D DN Analog 2 MAC 000F.2470.F92E

  48. Ephone (Cont.) router(config)# ephone phone-tag • Creates an ephone instance and enters ephone configuration mode router(config-ephone)# mac-address mac-address • Assigns the physical IP phone by MAC address with this instance of an ephone

  49. Ephone (Cont.) router(config-ephone)# button button-number {separator} dn-tag [[button-number {separator} dn-tag]…] • Associates the ephone-dn(s) with a specific button(s) on the IP phone router(config-ephone)# type {7940 | 7960} addon 1 7914 [2 7914] • Defines the device as a 7914 module(s)

  50. Ephone (Cont.): Basic Example MAC 000F.2470.F8F8 ephone 1 ephone-dn 7: one virtual port 1001 Button 1 000F.2470.F8F8 CMERouter(Config)#ephone-dn 7 CMERouter(Config-ephone-dn)#number 1001 CMERouter(config)#ephone 1 CMERouter(config-ephone)#mac-address 000F.2470.F8F8 CMERouter(config-ephone)#button 1:7