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Topping PowerPoint Presentation

Topping

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Topping

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  1. Topping

  2. Why does a plant have leaves? • As a store for seed production

  3. Historical Perspective • Late topping/ full bloom • Past Demand • Lighter bodied style of tobacco • Milder taste • Non-filtered • Sucker control • Hand removal • No chemical control

  4. Physiological Aspect of Topping • Leaf Spread • Removal of non-beneficial nutrient sink • Root stimulation

  5. Timing • Best when 10-25% of plants have one flower open • Effects on plant • Darker cured leaf color • Prior to physiological maturity • Prior to stalk hardening • Increases root development • More leaf expansion in lower part of plant

  6. Yield Trends • Bud Topping • Yield loss in many varieties • Good for late maturing varieties • 10-25% • Best for most varieties • Good quality • 50-75% • Suckers initiated in some varieties • 100%+ • Yield decline • Sucker initiation in all varieties • Opportunistic diseases • Senescence

  7. Disease Incidence • Hollow Stalk • Late Top • Harden Stalk • Ragged Top

  8. Effects of Topping Time on Yield 12 trials over 10 years

  9. Topping Height • Root system • Supports a finite leaf yield • Leaf number • 20 leaves • Larger leaves • Yield • Highest sometimes • 26 leaves • Smaller leaves • Yield • No different most times

  10. Effects of Topping Time on Yield 17 trials over 9 years

  11. Effects of Topping Time on Leaf Yield 17 trials over 9 years

  12. Topping Study Labor ComparisonsLawrence Co. – Malcom Smith Farm

  13. Topping Study Labor ComparisonsLawrence Co. – Malcom Smith Farm

  14. On a Larger Scale • 6 leaves per plant • 42,000 per acre • Based on7000 population • 420,000 • Based on 10 acres • 1,035,000 • Based on 24 acres

  15. Maturity • Approximately 4 weeks after topping • Influenced by residual N • Signs • White stem & stalk • Leaf cracks when bent • Bronzing of leaves

  16. Harvesting • Timing • Yield • Increase to 4- 5 wks after topping • Decrease after 5 wks after topping • Quality • High early increase slightly to 3 wks after topping • Decline after 3 wks

  17. Effects of Harvest Date on Yield and Quality

  18. Harvest Date Across Five Locations HSD 0.05 = 74 168 55 201 Locations = Bath, Boyle, Clay, Jackson & Pulaski

  19. Effects of HarvestTime on QualityJackson Co. - Harry Nicholson Farm HSD 0.05 = 1.74 1.99 1.95 1.59 6 = Usable Tobacco, 4 to 5 = Marginal, 4 = Non-usable, 3 was described as high color, undesirable, tight faced & immature