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Multiprocessors for DSP. SYSC5603 Digital Signal Processing Microprocessors, Software and Applications . Outline. Why Multiprocessor Systems? Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) Architectures CMP Advantages & Disadvantages Current CMP Solutions Tools for Designing and Simulation CMPs

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multiprocessors for dsp

Multiprocessors for DSP

SYSC5603 Digital Signal Processing Microprocessors, Software and Applications

outline
Outline
  • Why Multiprocessor Systems?
  • Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) Architectures
  • CMP Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Current CMP Solutions
  • Tools for Designing and Simulation CMPs
  • Summary
why multiprocessor systems
Why Multiprocessor Systems?
  • Single-core microprocessor performance increases are beginning to slow [1] due to:
    • Increasing power consumption (>100 W)
    • Increasing heat dissipation
    • Diminishing performance gains from ILP & TLP [2]
  • As a result manufactures are turning to a multi-core microprocessor approach
    • Multiple smaller energy efficient processing cores are integrated onto a single chip
    • Improves overall performance by performing more work concurrently
cmp architectures
CMP Architectures
  • Two general types of multi-core or chip multiprocessor (CMP) architectures
    • Homogeneous CMPs – all processing elements (PEs) are the same
    • Heterogeneous CMPs – comprised of different PEs
  • Homogenous dual-core processors for PCs are now available from all major manufactures
  • Heterogeneous CMPs are available in the form of multiprocessor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs)
homogenous cmp quad sharc dsp
Homogenous CMP - Quad-SHARC DSP

Quad-SHARC Functional Diagram

Core ADSP-21060 SHARC Functional Diagram

[3]

[3]

heterogeneous cmp cell be
Heterogeneous CMP – Cell BE

Cell Broadband Engine Block Diagram

[4]

cmp advantages
CMP Advantages
  • CMPs have several advantages over single processor solutions
    • Energy and silicon area efficiency
      • By Incorporating smaller less complex cores onto a single chip
      • Dynamically switching between cores and powering down unused cores [5]
    • Increased throughput performance by exploiting parallelism
      • Multiple computing resources can take better advantage of instruction, thread, and process level parallelism
cmp disadvantages
CMP Disadvantages
  • Poorer performance in single task situations
    • Need to have software that can be decomposed into multiple threads in order to take full advantage of CMP resources
  • Programming CMPs is inherently more difficult due to:
    • Software needing to be designed with multiple threads
    • Parallel programming and its associated issues such as shared memory access and message passing
    • Large number of possibly different types of PEs
current cmp solutions
Current CMP Solutions
  • Many different types of CMP solutions exist today and choosing one depends on the intended application
    • In the desktop computing industry all major manufactures now offer multi-core solutions
    • Manufactures of PDSPs also offer multi-core versions of their products
    • FPGA manufactures offer programmable devices with immersed microprocessor cores
design and simulation tools
Design and Simulation Tools
  • Of the multi-core solutions that exist none offer support for a multi-core design from scratch
    • Instead customers decide on a multi-core platform from a specific vendor and generally use the tools available from that vendor to program, test, and verify their multi-core solution
  • One solution for the design and simulation of multi-processor systems from the ground up is offered by Cmpware Inc.
    • They offer a configurable multi-processor development kit (CMP-DK) which allows for the design, programming, and testing of multi-processor systems
design and simulation tools the cmp dk
Design and Simulation Tools – The CMP-DK
  • Their development environment lets processors and their interconnection network be quickly and simply defined [6]
    • Existing processor cores along with their associated tools, libraries, and software can be used [6]
    • Also, users are able to specify their own custom processor architectures and interconnect networks or modify an existing architecture as needed.
summary
Summary
  • The CMP architecture is now the architecture of choice for semiconductor manufactures
  • CMPs are more area and energy efficient than single processor solutions
  • CMPs achieve greater throughput than single processor solutions as more work can be done concurrently
  • Custom multi-processor systems can now be designed and simulated from the ground up using software solutions from several companies
references
References

[1] D. Geer, “Chip makers turn to multicore processors,” IEEE Computer, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 11-13, 2005.

[2] L. Hammond, B. Hubbert, M. Siu, M. Prabhu, M. Chen and K. Olukotun, “The Stanford Hydra CMP”, IEEE Micro, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 71-84, Mar./Apr. 2000.

[3] AD14060 Data Sheets. (2004). Analog Devices. Norwood, MA. [Online]. Available: http://www.analog.com/UploadedFiles/Data_Sheets/ 4003696AD14060_L_b.pdf

[4] Cell Broadband Engine Architecture and its first implementation. [Online]. Available: http://www- 128.ibm.com/developerworks/power/library/pa- cellperf/#23ref1

references14
References

[5] R. Kumar, D. M. Tullsen, N.P. Jouppi, and P. Ranganathan, “Heterogeneous Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Computer, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 32-38, 2005.

[6] S. A. Guccione. (2005, April). Programming Configurable Multiprocessors. Presented at the 12th Reconfigurable Architectures Workshop. [Online]. Available: http://www.cmpware.com/Papers/RAW2005/Cmpwar e_RAW_2005.pdf