Why Dark??? • Barbarian invaders destroyed the Roman empire and its well-organized political, social and economic system • Bandits and robbers roamed the countryside • Cities became smaller • Reading & writing were neglected – arts and sciences ignored (schools and libraries destroyed) • No strong kingdoms to provide stability & order
Invasions in the 800s and 900s Magyars – Turkish people from the Carpathian Mountains
Invasions in the 800s and 900s Muslims – called “Moors”, attacked from North Africa into Spain, which became a Muslim controlled area for the next 700 years.
Invasions in the 800s and 900s Vikings – were a Germanic tribe from Scandanavia who were often called Norsemen • worshipped warlike gods • were raiders, traders, farmers and explorers • Eventually converted to Christianity & settled in N. France & other parts of Europe
Invasions in the 800s and 900s Franks – In the once Roman province of Gaul, a Germanic tribe called the Franks settled and took power • Clovis – converted to Christianity & united Franks in 511 A.D. – founded Merovingian Dynasty (511-751 A.D.)
Invasions in the 800s and 900s • By 719, the kings were weak & all power rested in the hands of the “Mayor of the Palace” • 732 A.D. – Battle of Tours (Poitiers) – chivalry • Charles Martel (Mayor) vs. the Muslims • Stopped Muslaim advance into Europe
Invasions in the 800s and 900s • Charles Martel succeeded by Pepin the Short, who asked Pope for permission to make himself king instead of Mayor of the Palace – founded the Carolingian Dynasty (751 – 987 A.D.)
Invasions in the 800s and 900s • Charlemagne – became king in 771, united Europe for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire. • Crowned emperor in 800 (1st Holy Roman Emperor) • Encouraged learning • After Charlemagne’s death, empire divided & chaos again ruled Europe