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End of Year Review Hydrology
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  1. End of Year ReviewHydrology 8thGrade Science Curriculum

  2. Hydrosphere The portion of the Earth that contains water. Hydrologic Cycle

  3. Essential Question #51 • How is water distributed on earth?

  4. Fresh water Groundwater Glaciers Icecaps Icebergs Water without salt Water that infiltrates the soil and rock to get underground Percolates through permeable rock Stops at impermeable rock River of ice on land Areas of permanent snow and ice at the poles Large floating masses of ice detached from a glacier or icecap Distribution of Fresh Water on Earth

  5. Credit: Earth Forum, Houston Museum of Natural Science For more info: Earth Forum, Houston Museum of Natural Science

  6. www.chemtronicsindia.com/water-treatment.htm

  7. Where is most freshwater located on Earth? Polar ice caps Groundwater Lakes Rivers

  8. Where is most freshwater located on Earth? Polar ice caps Groundwater Lakes Rivers

  9. EssentialQuestion #51 • How is water distributed on earth? • Class Discussion

  10. How does water get into the atmosphere? Water evaporates from the oceans, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water is transpired from the leaves of plants (transpiration) Water is exhaled by animals Hydrologic Cycle www.hometrainingtools.com

  11. Hydrologic Cycle • How does water get back onto land? • Water vapor condenses in the cold upper atmosphere as ice crystals or liquid. • When flakes or drops are large enough, they fall back down as precipitation: snow, rain, sleet, hail www.hometrainingtools.com

  12. Essential Question #52 • What is a river basin?

  13. Hydrologic Cycle • Surface Water • Glaciers and ice caps trap some of the water • Runoff flows into lakes and ponds then on to the oceans • Some water is taken in by living things • What happens to water that falls on the land? www.ncwildlife.org/.../images/img10b5a_02.gif

  14. What happens to water that falls on the land? Hydrologic Cycle Surface Water (continued) • Reservoir is a lake that stores water for human use. • Wetland is a land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year. • Drought occurs when there is a long period of scarce rainfall.

  15. What happens to water that falls on the land? Some percolates down into the soil and rock layers Aquifer: is a layer of rock that is porous enough to hold large amounts of water Artesian well: is water that is forced out of an aquifer by gravity. Water table: top of the groundwater in an aquifer Hydrologic Cycle Groundwater

  16. What is a river basin? Which river basin do you live in? The region of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Also known as a watershed Neuse or Cape Fear North Carolina River Basins www.fws.gov/nc-es/fish/CFSRockyRiver1.jpg

  17. Essential Question #52 • What is a river basin? • The region of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Also known as a watershed

  18. Essential Question #53 • Which river basin do you live in?

  19. North Carolina River Basins www.harnett.org/search-site-map.asp?Keyword=n...

  20. Essential Question #53 • Which river basin do you live in? • Fuquay-Varina is on the border of the Neuse River Basin to the north and east and the Cape Fear River Basin to the south and west.

  21. Which describes the hydrosphere? Most of it contains salt. It is made of only freshwater. All of it is located above ground. It is formed by a climate change.

  22. Which describes the hydrosphere? Most of it contains salt. It is made of only freshwater. All of it is located above ground. It is formed by a climate change.

  23. Essential Question #54 • Where does drinking water come from?

  24. Water Treatment Plants Makes water safe for human consumption by taking out impurities and adding chemicals to kill bacteria The source of water can be a lake, river, or reservoir Sources of Drinking Water OR Water for Human Consumption www.cacoastkeeper.org/groundwater.php

  25. Essential Question #55 • How do we treat our water so we can use it in our homes?

  26. Water Treatment Plants www.sandiego.gov

  27. Essential Question #55 • How do we treat our water so we can use it in our homes? • Can you remember the process without going back to the last slide?

  28. Sources of Drinking Water OR Water for Human Consumption • Wells • Brings groundwater up after it has been naturally filtered by percolating down through the layers of soil and rock

  29. Essential Question #54 • Where does drinking water come from? • Water treatment plants and wells

  30. Measuring Rainfall A rain gauge is used to measure rainfall www.grasstec.ie www.enterthejournals.com

  31. Which tool is used to determine precipitation amounts? Balance scale Hygrometer Rain gauge Thermometer

  32. Which tool is used to determine precipitation amounts? Balance scale Hygrometer Rain gauge Thermometer

  33. OceansTerms to Understand • Intertidal Zone: land covered by tides part of the day • Neritic Zone: ocean over the continental shelf • Oceanic Zone: deep, open ocean • Continental Shelf: from the edge of the continent to where the continental slope drops sharply • Continental Slope: steep incline between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain • Trench: deepest part of the ocean. Marianas Trench-5 miles deep • Seamount: underwater volcano • Abyssal Plane: deep, flat portion of the ocean floor • Mid-Ocean Ridge: chain of undersea volcanoes where the sea floor spreads • Photic Zone: top layer of ocean that sunlight reaches • Aphotic Zone: lower layer of ocean that sunlight does not reach

  34. Oceans Intertidal Zone OR ________________Oceanic Zone_________________ Or Neritic Zone Or Photic Zone Aphotic Zone OR www.fao.org

  35. Photic Zone Aphotic Zone Gets sunlight so organisms can photosynthesize Marine producers live here Some algae have holdfasts (root-like structures) No light so no photosynthesis Extreme cold and pressure Some organisms are Bioluminescent (glow because of cellular chemical reactions Most eat organisms that sink Organisms at hydrothermal vents are chemotropic (use chemicals for food) Characteristics of the Zones www.alga-net.com www.kidsbiology.com

  36. Intertidal Zone Neritic Zone Open Ocean Zone Dry land during low tide but underwater at high tide Organism tolerate being out of the water for part of the day Over the continental shelf Organisms adapted to warmer, sunlit, low pressure environment Environment over abyssal plain Organisms adapted to colder, dark, high pressure environment Characteristics of the Zones

  37. Mid-ocean Ridge Volcanic area where new ocean floor is being made Ocean Floor Hydrothermal Vent / / seafloor spreading. Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain)

  38. Is the amount of dissolved solids in the oceans. Mostly salt (NaCl) High salinity increases density of water Caused by rain picking up salts on land, then carrying them to the oceans Salinity

  39. After fishing in the ocean, a student left his fishing gear in the sun to dry. Later, he noticed that small white crystals had formed on the rod, reel, and fishing line. Which of these is the best explanation of what occurred? The water evaporated from the fishing gear, and sand was attracted to it. The fish that were caught left scales on the fishing gear. The salt in the ocean water reacted with the fishing gear and caused it to rust. The water evaporated from the fishing gear, and salt from the ocean was left behind.

  40. After fishing in the ocean, a student left his fishing gear in the sun to dry. Later, he noticed that small white crystals had formed on the rod, reel, and fishing line. Which of these is the best explanation of what occurred? The water evaporated from the fishing gear, and sand was attracted to it. The fish that were caught left scales on the fishing gear. The salt in the ocean water reacted with the fishing gear and caused it to rust. The water evaporated from the fishing gear, and salt from the ocean was left behind.

  41. Essential Question #56 • What is an upwelling?

  42. Temperature of the Oceans • Water is most dense at 4C • Warm water rises and cold water sinks • Lower layers of the oceans are cold • Upper layers of the oceans are warm • Nutrients sink when organisms die and decompose • An upwelling occurs when winds cause cold, nutrient rich water to move up • Plankton thrive in these waters becoming food for larger organisms • El Niño is a wind in the Pacific Ocean that can cause very large upwellings making the Pacific more productive.

  43. Plankton grow and multiply in the nutrient rich waters  www.galapagosonline.com/.../Upwelling.jpg

  44. Essential Question #56 • What is an upwelling? • Winds cause water to be blown away from shore. Deep, nutrient rich water comes up to replace it. Plankton thrive on the nutrients making for organisms higher in the food chain.

  45. Which condition in the ocean is most responsible for an increase in the fish population near the surface? Buoyancy Density Salinity Upwelling

  46. Which condition in the ocean is most responsible for an increase in the fish population near the surface? Buoyancy Density Salinity Upwelling

  47. Organisms that live in the deep oceans have to adapt to several extreme conditions High pressure: organisms that live deep are under pressures that would crush a submarine Darkness: no light gets to these depths so some organisms have bioluminescence or the ability to produce their own light 3. Cold temperatures: at these depths, ocean water is around 3C which is near freezing Ocean Depths oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/.../media/fig3b_600.jpg

  48. Essential Question #57 • What types of organisms are the most abundant in marine ecosystems?

  49. Necton Benthos Plankton Phytoplankton Zooplankton Free-swimming consumers whose movements are independent of currents Examples: fish, whales, turtles Life on the entire ocean floor; mostly small invertebrates that are consumers (heterotrophs) Tiny organisms that make up most of the life in the oceans Small plant-like producers (most abundant) that photosynthesize food (autotrophs) Example: Diatoms are one-celled algae w/ glass plates Small animal-like consumers (heterotrophs) Around thermal vents, some are chemotrophs (another type of autotroph) or live on chemosynthesis Life in the Oceans