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Chapter 17.1 Ideas about Evolution

Chapter 17.1 Ideas about Evolution

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Chapter 17.1 Ideas about Evolution

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  1. Chapter 17.1Ideas about Evolution Mr. Perez

  2. Important Vocabulary • Gene • Species • Evolution • Natural selection • Variation • Adaptation • Gradualism • Punctuated equilibrium

  3. Early Models of Evolution • A species is a group of organisms that share similar characteristics and can reproduce among themselves to produce fertile offspring • Many characteristics of a species are inherited when they pass from parent to offspring • Change in these inherited characteristics over time is evolution

  4. Species

  5. Hypothesis of Acquired Characteristics • Remember, a hypothesis is an educated guess. • Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1809) • Proposed the hypothesis that characteristics, or traits, developed during a parent organism’s lifetime are inherited by its offspring • Evidence did not support this hypothesis

  6. Lamarck’s Hypothesis

  7. Darwin’s Model of Evolution • Charles Darwin sailed on the HMS Beagle from England to the South American coast in December 1831 • He recorded observations about the plants and animals he saw– he was amazed by the variety of life on the Galapagos Islands • Darwin hypothesized that the plants and animals on the Galapagos Islands originally must have come from Central and South America

  8. Darwin’s Observations • Darwin observed 13 species of finches on the Galapagos Islands • All were similar EXCEPT FOR • Body size • Eating habits • Beaks shape • He also noted that these finch species were similar to one finch species on the South American coast • Darwin reasoned that the Galapagos finches competed for food. Finches with beak shapes that allowed them to eat food, survived longer and produced offspring. After generations, these groups became separate species

  9. Natural Selection • After his voyage: • Darwin returned to England to review his observations • Collected evidence on inherited traits by breeding racing pigeons • Studied breeds of dogs and varieties of flowers • In 1859, his theory of evolution was published in the book Origin of Species

  10. Darwin’s Theory • “Theory of evolution by natural selection” • Natural selection means that organisms with traits best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce • Populations are all the individuals of a species living in the same area • Members of a population compete for living space, food and other resources

  11. Principles of Natural Selection • Variation exists among individuals within species • Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can handle • Competition exists among individuals • The organisms whose variations best fit them to the environment are the ones who are most likely to survive, reproduce and pass those desirable variations on the next generations

  12. Variation and Adaptation • Variations are inherited traits that makes an individual different from other members of the species • They result from mutations, or permanent changes in an organism’s genes • Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making specific proteins • Adaptations are any variation that makes an organism better suited to its environment

  13. Changes in the Sources of Genes • The genetic makeup of a species might change its appearance • Example: Seed-eating finches in the Galapagos had their genetic make up change, causing their beak size and shape to change • Environment factors bring about changes • New individuals entering an existing population can also bring change

  14. Geographic Isolation • Mountains, lakes or other geologic features isolate (separate) a small number of individuals from the rest of the population • Over several generation, variations may rise in the smaller population than in the bigger population • Gene mutations can also occur, adding variation • Over time, the two populations can become so different that they can no longer breed with each other.

  15. Geographic Isolation

  16. Videos Natural Selection http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/variation/artificial/ Variationhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/variation/sources/

  17. Classwork Questions • Compare Lamarck’s and Darwin’s ideas about how evolution takes place. • Why are variations important to understanding change in a population over time? • What adaptations would be helpful to an animal that was moved to the Arctic? • How does geographic isolation contribute to evolution? • Next slide…

  18. STOP HERE • Stop here, save the rest for next class… BRING M&Ms to class by (A) 2/11 or (B) 2/12

  19. Speed of Evolution • Scientists do not agree on how quickly evolution occurs. • Some hypothesize that it is a slow and long process • Others hypothesize that evolution can happen quickly • Evidence supports both: • Gradualism • Punctuated equilibrium

  20. Gradualism • Darwin hypothesized that evolution takes place very slowly • The model the describes evolution as a slow, ongoing process by which one species changes to a new species is called gradualism • According to the model, a continuing series of mutations and variations over time will result in a new species • Fossil evidence shows an intermediate species, indicating a gradual change

  21. Punctuated Equilibrium • However, for some species the fossil record shows few intermediate forms– one species suddenly changes into another • In the punctuated equilibrium model, evolution comes about when the mutation of a few genes results in the appearance of a new species over a relatively short period of time • The fossil record also gives examples of this type of evolution

  22. Punctuated Equilibrium Today • Many bacteria have changed in a few decades • The antibiotic penicillin, originally came from a fungus • Many bacteria species that were once killed by penicillin are no longer harmed by it– they have developed a resistance • This fast development of penicillin-resistance in bacteria supports the model of punctuated equilibrium

  23. Videos • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/course/session5/elaborate_c.html • http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::550::400::/sites/dl/free/0078802849/383939/gradualism_Punctuated_Equilibrium.swf::Gradualism%20and%20Punctuated%20Equilibrium

  24. Classwork Questions • How does gradualism differ from punctuated equilibrium? • Use this figure to draw a concept map that shows how raccoons, red pandas, polar bears and black bears are related to a common ancestor.

  25. Resources • Florida Science Grade 8 Glencoe Science & McGraw Hill Publishing • Google Images