A WORKABLE APPROACH TO GRAMMAR • FORM VS MEANING • ACCURACY FLUENCY • CONTENT CONTEXT • DEDUCTION INDUCTION • LANGUAGE DISSECTED LANGUAGE AS A WHOLE • GRAMMAR POINTS GRAMMAR IS IMMERSED TAKEN AS ISOLATED IN SEMI OR AUTHENTIC PARTS AND PLACED TEXTS ACCORDING TO IN SPECIFICALLY THE TEACHERS´SELECTION PREPARED UNITS
GRAMMAR IS GRADED GRAMMAR IS PRESENTED AND SEQUENCED FOR ACCORDING TO THE TEACHING PURPOSES TYPE OF TEXT • ATTENTION FOCUSES ATTENTION FOCUSES ON STRUCTURES ON CONTEXTUAL CLUES
SUGGESTED STEPS TO INTRODUCE GRAMMAR IN THE CLASSROOM 1. AWARENESS • Learners are given opportunities to encounter the structure in different types of discourse. (oral or written) Example: Students are given extracts from newspaper articles and are asked to find and underline all the examples of the structure they can find. • Learners are introduced to the structure. Purpose: Focus their attention on the structure.
2. GUIDED AND SEMI-GUIDED PRACTICE • Learners produce examples of the structure (pre-determined task) Ex.: John drinks tea but he doesn’t drink coffee. (scotch - brandy) John drinks ………… but he doesn´t eat ……… 3. MEANINGFUL PRACTICE • Learners form sentences of their own according to a set pattern, but the vocabulary they use is their own.
4. REFLECTION • Students independently analyze, compare, reflect. 5. PRODUCTION - APPLICATION • Students are capable of producing sentences of their own.
Grammar ........... yes,......no..... how...... • “The language teacher’s view of what constitutes knowledge of a language is …. The assumption that the language teacher appears to make is that once this basis is provided, then the learner will have no difficulty in dealing with the actual use of language….” • There is a good deal of evidence to suggest that this assumption is of very doubtful validity indeed.” • (From H.G. Widdowson, “Directions in the Teaching of Discourse “ in Brumfit C.J. and Johnson, K. (eds.) The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp. 49-60
“The evidence seems to show beyond doubt that though it is by communicative use in ‘real speech acts’ that the new language ‘sticks’ in the learner´s mind, insight into pattern is an equal partner with communicative use in what language teachers now see as the dual process of acquisition/learning. Grammar, approached as a voyage of discovery into the patterns of language rather than the learning of prescriptive rules, is no longer a bogey word.” • (from Eric Hawkins, Awareness of Language: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp- 150-1)
“The important question is not whether teaching and learning grammar is necessary and/or sufficient for language learning,. But whether it helps or not. And my own opinion is that yes, it does help, provided it is taught consistently as a means to improving mastery of the language, not as an end it itself. • (from Penny Uhr, A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 77-78.)
THE ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN LANGUAGE TEACHINGTHEN • SENTENCE-GRAMMAR THE FOCUS OF TEACHING • LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE THE GOAL OF LEARNING • GRAMMAR OFTEN TAUGHT DIVORCED FROM CONTEXT • ACCURACY-BASED METHODOLOGY
NOW • ACCURACY AND FLUENCY OF EQUAL STATUS • FLUENCY-BASED METHODOLOGY • GRAMMAR TAUGHT IN MEANINGFUL CONTEXT THROUGH TASKS • FOCUS ON GRAMMAR IN DISCOURSE AND TEXTS • COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE THE GOAL OF LEARNING