A.P. Study Guide

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A.P. Study Guide. Go Lions!. Lauren Crawford Mr. Tebow. What Symbols Mean. R= Gas Constant M = Molarity = M olal freezing point = M olal boiling point K= Kelvin m = Molality m= Mass i = van’t Hoff Factor = O smotic Pressure(not 3.14) r= Rate of Effusion N= Normality

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### A.P. Study Guide

Go Lions!

Lauren Crawford

Mr. Tebow

What Symbols Mean
• R= Gas Constant
• M= Molarity
• = Molal freezing point
• = Molal boiling point
• K= Kelvin
• m= Molality
• m= Mass
• i= van’t Hoff Factor
• = Osmotic Pressure(not 3.14)
• r= Rate of Effusion
• N= Normality
• v= Velocity
• u= RMS speed
• = Change in Fusion
• = Change in Vaporization
Characteristics of Gases
• Gases are often referred to as vapors
• Gases expand to fill their container
• Gases are highly compressible
• (When Pressure is applied a gases volume decreases.)
• Gases form homogenous mixtures with one another regardless of their identities
Pressure
• PRESSURE- The force that that moves something in a general direction
• PRESSURE can be measured by the equation:
• Standard Atmospheric Pressure corresponds to atmospheric pressure at sea level

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr =

1.0132510⁵ Pa = 101.325 kPa

The Gas Laws
• The PRESSURE-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law (The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the temperature.)
• The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law (The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant PRESSURE is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.)
• The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law (Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and PRESSURE contain an equal number of molecules.)
The IDEAL-GAS Equation
• The IDEAL-GAS Equation refers to the types of gases that follow all of the gas laws
• The IDEAL-GAS Equation is written as where P=PRESSURE, V= Volume, n= Moles of Gas, R= Constant* (depending on what P is measured in) and T= TEMPERATURE(measured in Kelvin (K= °C+273))

*The R Constant is a stabilizing number that is used in the IDEAL-GAS Equation depending on the units that PRESSURE is measured in.

atm Gas Constant R is 0.0821 L atm mol

torr/ mmHg Gas Constant R is 64.4 torrmol

Molecular EFFUSION and DIFFUSION
• u Refers to the RMS Speed or the particle speeds for different gases.
• The lighter gas has a higher RMS Speed and the heavier gas has a slower RMs Speed.
• The difference of particle speeds have an effect on the RATE OF EFFUSION which is represented by the equation also known as Graham’s Law
• . Discovered by Thomas Graham the rate of effusion seems to be inversely proportional to the molar mass of a gas
REAL GASES
• IDEAL GASES stick to the gas laws
• REAL GASES follow the VAN DER WAAL’s equation
• a and b are constants that are unique to the gases.
DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES
• Neutral polar molecules attract each other when the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another
• These forces are only effective when polar molecules are very close together.
LONDON DISPERSION FORCES
• Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles.
HYDROGEN BONDING
• The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond particularly (H–F, H–O or an H–N) and an unshared pair on a nearby, small, electronegative ion or atom.
PHASE DIAGRAMS
• A phase diagram is a way to summarize the way equilibrium can exist between phases of matter.
• The Critical Point is the highest point at which the element or compound can exist
• The triple point is where the element or compound can exist in all three stages of matter.
HEAT CURVES

Gas

Vaporization

Liquid

Melting

Solid

VAPOR POINT DEPRESSION
• When you add a substance to a solute is reduces the ability for vapor to escape.
BOILING POINT ELEVATION
• When you add a substance to a solute the boiling point will either get higher or lower.
• ex. so, if then, that gets added to the BP of the solute and the solute with the solvent is that.
FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION
• Freezing Point Depression refers to the substances freezing point. If a substance is added to a solute with a freezing point of 0°C and the substance has a freezing point of -4°C the new freezing point becomes -4°C
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
• OSMOSIS is the pressure need to push water through a barrier.
• When a substance doesn’t have a known osmotic pressure the equation
• refers to osmotic pressure it does not mean pi as in 3.14159265…..
Bibliography
• Brown LeMay Textbook
• The Internet (for pictures)