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A.P. Study Guide. Go Lions!. Lauren Crawford Mr. Tebow. What Symbols Mean. R= Gas Constant M = Molarity = M olal freezing point = M olal boiling point K= Kelvin m = Molality m= Mass i = van’t Hoff Factor = O smotic Pressure(not 3.14) r= Rate of Effusion N= Normality

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a p study guide

A.P. Study Guide

Go Lions!

Lauren Crawford

Mr. Tebow

what symbols mean
What Symbols Mean
  • R= Gas Constant
  • M= Molarity
  • = Molal freezing point
  • = Molal boiling point
  • K= Kelvin
  • m= Molality
  • m= Mass
  • i= van’t Hoff Factor
  • = Osmotic Pressure(not 3.14)
  • r= Rate of Effusion
  • N= Normality
  • v= Velocity
  • u= RMS speed
  • = Change in Fusion
  • = Change in Vaporization
characteristics of gases
Characteristics of Gases
  • Gases are often referred to as vapors
  • Gases expand to fill their container
  • Gases are highly compressible
  • (When Pressure is applied a gases volume decreases.)
  • Gases form homogenous mixtures with one another regardless of their identities
  • PRESSURE- The force that that moves something in a general direction
  • PRESSURE can be measured by the equation:
  • Standard Atmospheric Pressure corresponds to atmospheric pressure at sea level

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr =

1.0132510⁵ Pa = 101.325 kPa

the gas laws
The Gas Laws
  • The PRESSURE-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law (The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the temperature.)
  • The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law (The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant PRESSURE is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.)
  • The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law (Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and PRESSURE contain an equal number of molecules.)
the ideal gas equation
The IDEAL-GAS Equation
  • The IDEAL-GAS Equation refers to the types of gases that follow all of the gas laws
  • The IDEAL-GAS Equation is written as where P=PRESSURE, V= Volume, n= Moles of Gas, R= Constant* (depending on what P is measured in) and T= TEMPERATURE(measured in Kelvin (K= °C+273))

*The R Constant is a stabilizing number that is used in the IDEAL-GAS Equation depending on the units that PRESSURE is measured in.

atm Gas Constant R is 0.0821 L atm mol

torr/ mmHg Gas Constant R is 64.4 torrmol

molecular effusion and diffusion
  • u Refers to the RMS Speed or the particle speeds for different gases.
  • The lighter gas has a higher RMS Speed and the heavier gas has a slower RMs Speed.
  • The difference of particle speeds have an effect on the RATE OF EFFUSION which is represented by the equation also known as Graham’s Law
  • . Discovered by Thomas Graham the rate of effusion seems to be inversely proportional to the molar mass of a gas
real gases
  • IDEAL GASES stick to the gas laws
  • REAL GASES follow the VAN DER WAAL’s equation
  • a and b are constants that are unique to the gases.
dipole dipole forces
  • Neutral polar molecules attract each other when the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another
  • These forces are only effective when polar molecules are very close together.
london dispersion forces
  • Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles.
hydrogen bonding
  • The special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond particularly (H–F, H–O or an H–N) and an unshared pair on a nearby, small, electronegative ion or atom.
phase diagrams
  • A phase diagram is a way to summarize the way equilibrium can exist between phases of matter.
  • The Critical Point is the highest point at which the element or compound can exist
  • The triple point is where the element or compound can exist in all three stages of matter.
heat curves






vapor point depression
  • When you add a substance to a solute is reduces the ability for vapor to escape.
boiling point elevation
  • When you add a substance to a solute the boiling point will either get higher or lower.
  • ex. so, if then, that gets added to the BP of the solute and the solute with the solvent is that.
freezing point depression
  • Freezing Point Depression refers to the substances freezing point. If a substance is added to a solute with a freezing point of 0°C and the substance has a freezing point of -4°C the new freezing point becomes -4°C
osmotic pressure
  • OSMOSIS is the pressure need to push water through a barrier.
  • When a substance doesn’t have a known osmotic pressure the equation
  • refers to osmotic pressure it does not mean pi as in 3.14159265…..
  • Brown LeMay Textbook
  • The Internet (for pictures)