changes in communities ecological succession n.
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Changes in Communities: Ecological Succession. Ecological Succession. The natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in a particular area The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time. Primary Succession.

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ecological succession
Ecological Succession
  • The natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in a particular area
  • The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time
primary succession
Primary Succession
  • Begins in a place without any soil
    • Sides of volcanoes
    • Landslides
    • Flooding
  • Starts with the arrival of organisms that do not need soil to survive, such as lichens.
  • Called PIONEER SPECIES
primary succession1
Primary Succession
  • Soil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller pieces
  • When lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil
primary succession2
Primary Succession
  • Simple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil
primary succession3
Primary Succession
  • The simple plants die, adding more organic material
  • The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over
primary succession4
Primary Succession
  • These plants die and they add more nutrients to the soil
  • Shrubs and trees can now survive
primary succession5
Primary Succession
  • Insects, small birds, and mammals have begun to move in
  • What was once bare rock now supports a variety of life
secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms
  • Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession
  • Example: after forest fires
slide12

Secondary Succession

On Abandoned Farmland

two types of succession from http www geowords org ensci imagesbook 04 03 succession swf
Two Types of SuccessionFrom http://www.geowords.org/ensci/imagesbook/04_03_succession.swf
climax community
Climax Community
  • A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the successionprocess
  • Does not always mean big trees
    • Grasses in prairies
    • Cacti in deserts
invasive species
Invasive Species

Defined as a species that is:

    • non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration.
    • whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
  • Invasive species can be plants, animals, and other organisms (e.g., microbes).
  • Human actions are the primary means of invasive species introductions.
eastern red cedar an invasive species
Eastern Red Cedar:An Invasive Species
  • Eastern Red Cedar invasions create a forest canopy which out-competes native vegetation for sunlight and water.
  • The resulting bare soils and increased erosion severely impact native plants and animals.
  • How are humans responsible?
a local example
A Local Example

Southeast corner of 135th & Quivira