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  1. The Genres in Game Mohammad Zikky, M.T

  2. Outline • What is a Game? • Game Genres

  3. What is a Game? (1 of 4) • Movie? • Toy? • Puzzle?

  4. What is a Game? (2 of 4) • Movie? • No interaction, outcome fixed • Toy? • No goal, but still fun! • Players can develop own goals • Puzzle? • strategy and outcome is the same each time "A computer game is a software program in which one or more playersmake decisions through the control of game objects and resources, in pursuit of a goal“ (Mark Overmars) )

  5. What is a Game (3 of 4) • A Computer Game is a Software Program • Not a real board game or sports • Consider: chess vs. soccer vs. Warcraft • Ask: What do you lose? What do you gain? • Lose: 1) physical pieces, 2) social interaction • Gain: 1) real-time, 2) more immersive, 3) more complexity • A Computer Game involves Players • Think about your audience; the game is not for you but for them. • Don’t just think about your story or the graphics or the interface, but consider the players.

  6. What is a Game (4 of 4) • Playing a Game is About Making Decisions • Ex: what weapon to use, what resource to build • Can be frustrating if decision does not matter • Want good gameplay (major topic later) • Playing a Game is About Control • Player wants to impact outcome • Uncontrolled sequences can still happen, but should be sparing and make logical • A Game Needs a Goal • Ex: Defeat Ganandorf in Zelda • Long games may have sub-goals • Ex: recover Triforce first, then Sword of Power • Without game goals, a player develops his/her own (a toy)

  7. What a Game is Not • A bunch of cool features • Necessary, but not sufficient • May even detract, if not careful, by concentrating on features, not game • A lot of fancy graphics • Games need graphics just as hit movie needs special effects, but neither will save weak idea • Game must work without fancy graphics • Suggestion: Should be fun with simple objects "When a designer is asked how his game is going to make a difference, I hope he … talks about gameplay, fun and creativity – as opposed to an answer that simply focuses on how good it looks." – Sid Meier (Civilizations, Railroad Tycoon, Pirates)

  8. Definitions (taken from Wikipedia)! • A computer game is a computer-controlled game. ! • A video game is a computer game where a video display such as a monitor or television is the primary feedback device. ! • The phrase interactive entertainment is the formal reference to computer and video games. ! • In common usage:! • Computer game or a PC game is played on a PC! • Console game is played on a device specifically designed for gaming! • Video game has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the above along with any game made for mobile phones, PDAs, etc. Game and Consule Game Definition (Review)

  9. Game Genres Games are often classified into genres, which purport to define games in terms of having a common style or set of haracteristics, e.g. as defined in terms of perspective, gameplay, interaction, objective, etc • However, the classification of games is not always consistent and can be somewhat arbitrary. Does this really matter? Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations!!

  10. Adventure games! • Typically the player is the protagonist of a story and in order to progress must solve puzzles. The puzzles can often involve manipulating and interacting with in-game objects, characters, etc.! • Text-based adventures and graphical! • Examples:! • Zork! • King’s Quest ! • Grim Fandango ! • Fahrenheit! You can play the original Zork at:

  11. Adventure Games • Game is about adventure and exploration • Story line is often crucial • Can be 2D or 3D • Actions easy (just move) • Difficulty is in making exploration/adventure interesting • Interesting, funny, and surprising story line • Corresponding artwork • Artists’ role is crucial • Somewhat difficult in Game Maker

  12. Action Game • A number of other action-oriented genres can be broadly classified as belonging to this genre. Action games are typified by fast-paced events and movement which often have to be performed reflexively. • Games such as Pong and Space Invadersinitially defined the genre.

  13. Arcade Games • Reaction and speed are the most important aspects of the game • Examples: scrolling shooters, maze games like Pacman, paddle games like Breakout, Pong • Relatively easy to make • Normally 2D graphics • Good starting point for first game • Relatively easy in Game Maker

  14. Action-adventure games • Action-adventure games can be described in terms of a blend of the characteristics associated with both adventure and action games, i.e. often involving both exploration and puzzle solving alongside fast-paced action sequences. • Adventure on Atari 2600 can be considered as initially defining this genre • Other notable (more recent) examples include: • Legend of Zelda • Jak 3 • Metroid Prime 2

  15. Fighting games • In fighting games the player typically fights other players or the computer in some form of one-on-one combat. • Notable classics include: • Double Dragon • Mortal Kombat • Street Fighter • More recent renditions include: • Virtua Fighter • Tekken

  16. First-person shooter (FPS) games • Action games where the player is “behind the eyes” of the game character in a first-person perspective. Although a number of FPS games also support third-person views. • Most FPSs are fast-paced and typically require actions to be performed reflexively. • Notable examples include: • Wolfenstein 3D • DOOM! • Half-Life

  17. First-Person Shooters • 3D version of many arcade-style games (move and shoot) • Emphasis is on fast-paced action and reaction speed, not on cleverness and puzzle solving • Many examples: Doom, Quake, … • Need to be 3D • Relatively difficult to create because of models • Difficult in Game Maker

  18. Third-Person Action/Platformer • Player directly controls a game character (avatar) through a hostile world • Tomb Raider, Prince of Persia, Onimusha • Often, not much emphasis on character development • Fast action and discovering the game world • Some have story line, other adventure game aspects • Can be 2D or 3D • Can sometimes be created easily • Moderately easy in Game Maker

  19. Real-time strategy (RTS) games • RTS games typically defined a number of goals around resource collection, base and unit construction and engagement in combat with other players or computer opponents who also share similar goals. • Emphasis is often placed upon managing logistics, resources and production. • Notable examples include: • Dune 2 • Command and Conquer • Warcraft • Age of Empires

  20. Strategy Games • Real-time (RTS) or turn-based • Player only indirectly controls the character • Tactics less important than Strategy • Generallytake a lot of time to create • Require many different game objects, each with animated images and specific behavior • Difficult in Game Maker

  21. Turn-based strategy games • Turn-based games share similar aims to real-time strategy games although players take turns in much the same was as with many traditional board games. • Notable examples include: • Civilization ! • X-COM! • Master of Orion! • Jagged Alliance! • There is a recent trend towards hybrid games that include elements of both turn-based and real-time games, e.g. Rome Total War

  22. Role playing games (RPGs) • Originally started out as video games based on pen and pencil games like Dungeons and Dragons. A fantasy theme is often retained. • Often characterised in terms of providing the player with flexibility in terms of character development, problem resolution, etc. • Notable examples include: • Final Fantasy! • Baldur’s Gate! • Wasteland! • Neverwinter Nights • Elder Scrolls Oblivion

  23. Role Playing Games • Steer a character through a difficult world • Examples are Diablo and Baldur's Gate • Development of character to learn new skills, becoming more powerful, and finding stuff • Opponents/enemy become more powerful as well • Can create 2D or 3D • Generally harder to make because must create the mechanism of character development • Also normally need large world • Good level design is crucial • Difficult in Game Maker

  24. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMRPGs) • Typically a RPG set in a persistent virtual world populated by thousands of other players. MMORPGs can be viewed as evolving from text-based MUDs in mid-to-late 1990s. • The first highly popular MMORPG was Ultima Online whilst World of Warcraftholds the honor of being the current most popular. • Aside: Apart from MMOPRGs there are also sizeable communities around online first person shooters and strategy games, e.g. Battlefield 2

  25. Stealth games • Games which can be defined by a focus on subterfuge (intelligent) and/or precision play. • Notable examples include: • Metal Gear • Thief • Splinter Cell

  26. Survival horror games • Often an action-adventure or first-person shooter with a focus on fear and survival and adopting many of the elements of traditional horror fiction. • Alone in the Darkprovides a notable early example, whilst the Resident Evil series is a current notable example

  27. Simulation games • Many simulation games aim to simulate physical activities such as flying an aircraft (Microsoft Flight Simulator), playing golf or football etc.(sometimes with as much realism is as possible). • Other forms of simulation game aim to provide simulations of forms of management, e.g. football management games, city management (SimCity), railroading, etc. • Often the simulation is intended to be fun as opposed to accurate, e.g. Wing Commander and X3 are notable space combat simulation games • Others popular games in this category include The Sims series where the player ‘controls’ the lives of computer characters

  28. Simulation • Try for realistic representation • Ex: flight simulators, Trainz • Other simulations include world simulation • Ex: SimCity or SimEarth • Relatively difficult to create since getting details right a challenge • Difficult in Game Maker

  29. Racing games • Racing games typically place the player behind the wheel and involve competing in a race against other drivers and/or time. Two sub-genre can be identified: simulation and arcade. • Notable examples include: • Pole Position • Mario Kart • Gran Turismo • Need for Speed • GTR

  30. Racing Games • Really, special type of sports game • But pervasive enough to get own category • Drive a vehicle, as fast as possible, or sometimes for exploration, or combat • Either realistic... • Formula 1 or Grand Tourismo • ...or focused on fun (arcade) • Midtown Madness or Ridge Racer • Both 2D or 3D • Difficult in Game Maker

  31. Sports games • Games that simulate the sporting experience – including sports such as football, baseball, golf, boxing, skate boarding, ice hockey, tennis, etc. • Some sports game place the emphasis on the experience of playing the sport, whilst others focus on the strategy behind the sport. • Notable examples include: • John Madden Football • Tiger Woods’ Golf • Pro Evolution Soccer • Championship Manager

  32. Sports Games • Real-life sport, made virtual • Ideas, rules in place • Making realistic, challenging, fun like sport can be difficult • If not realisitc, can be done in Game Maker

  33. Rhythm games (music games)! • Rhythm games require the player to undertake some action (e.g. follow a sequence of movement or develop specific rhythms) in response to some stimulus (often music). • Often the games require specialised controllers such as dance pads. • Dance Dance Revolution is the best known example.

  34. Puzzle games • Puzzle games often require the player to solve puzzles or problems and can involve the exercise of logic, memory, pattern matching, reaction time, etc. • Notable examples include: • Tetris • Lemmings • Minesweeper • Boulder Dash

  35. Party Games • Variety of types • Ex: Mario Party, DDR, Karaoke, Guitar Hero • Social aspects important with participants in the same space • Allow for rapid change of turns • Allow for disparate abilities (beginners and experts, both have fun) • Easy in Game Maker

  36. Puzzle Games • Clever thinking is the most important aspect • Many maze games are based on puzzle solving, rather than on reaction time • Other examples board games and sliding puzzles • Normally 2-dimensional • Relatively easy to create • Except when played against a computer opponent • Artificial Intelligence can be harder • Ex: How to program the computer to play chess? • Relatively easy in Game Maker

  37. Traditional games • Traditional games represent computerised versions of board, word, and card games and include games such as chess, checkers, backgammon, mah-jongg, go, scrabble, etc.

  38. Educational games • Educational games are designed to teach new skills which can span from pre-school onwards. • Notable examples of this genre include: • Carmen Sandiego series • Mavis Beacon Teaching Typing • Dr Kawashima's Brain Training

  39. Educational Games • Entertainment games are great at teaching…how to play the game! • Educational games are designed to teach player knowledge or skill that is valuable outside the game • Ex: math, reading, problem solving • Relatively difficult in Game Maker (unless you have the domain expertise)

  40. References • Hanna, Philip. Java Games Programming. Queen’s University, Belfast, Ireland • Claypool, Mark. Courses in The Game Development Process, Worcester Polytechnic Institute