Game Genres Dr Manolya Kavakli Department of Computing Macquarie University, Australia
Game Genres • 1.Classic / Skill Games • 1.Puzzle Games • 2.Sports Games • 3.Paddle Games • 4.Music • 5.Games of Chance • 2.Action Games • 1.Combat Games • 2.Race Games • 3.Others • 3.Strategy Games • 1.Real-Time Strategy Games • 2.Turn-Based Strategy Games (Board Games, War Games) • 4.Adventure Games • 5.Role Playing Games • 1.Classic RPGs • 2.Modern RPGs • 6.Simulation Games • 7.Educational Games
CLASSIC / SKILL GAMES • a fairly old genre. • mid 1970s to early 1980s. • had little representation in the arcade. • the work of one or two game engineers. • such as cards, tile games, trivia, word, or • board games. • Examples: • Chess, checkers, backgammon, • Mahjong, and Solitaire
Recently, classic games include • simpler and smaller-scale computer games, • such as older arcade favourites and games • that may lack a deep story or player commitment • (Tetris, Bust-A-Move, and Minesweeper, etc.) • borrow elements from multiple genres or toys with different perspectives. • involves • puzzle games, • sports games, • paddle games, • games of chance.
Puzzle (Maze) Games • do not involve a lot of strategy choice, • but focus on one or more problems • that must be solved by the player. • Once these problems are solved, • finishing the puzzle is trivial. • Solving the problem generally takes the form of some sort of "trick", • often a basic algorithm, • that can either be puzzled out • through trial and error, or • by careful examination.
share • abstract themes, • a fixed play field, and game play • The player is presented • with a simple, compulsive, addictive task; • there is neither plot nor character. • Examples: • the Rubik's Cube. • PAC-MAN • now removed from the market. • the number, speed, and intelligence of the pursuers determines the pace and difficulty of the game. • The pursuers are just slightly slower than the human player; their intelligence and number make up for this.
MOUSKATTACK • structural changes relative to PAC-MAN. • The player is pursued through a maze • by four computer-controlled creatures, • passing through every point in the maze is not enough; • some points, randomly chosen by the computer, • must be passed through twice. • the player is allowed to fight back against the pursuers setting mousetraps. • MAZE CRAZE for the ATARI 2600 • the player makes his way to an exit. • JAWBREAKERS • Structurally, indistinguishable from PAC-MAN. • the pursuers are faces rather than ghosts; • the player is a set of teeth rather than a head with mouth; • the maze is laid out differently; • the sounds are different.
The appeal of puzzle games • can be attributed to the cleanliness • encapsulate the branching structure • that is a fundamental aspect of all games. • A game has a tree structure • with each branch point representing a decision made by the player. • each branch point is neatly depicted by an intersection in the maze • the options available to the player are visually presented as the paths available at the intersection. • Thus, a maze game presents a clear visual representation of the branching structure of the game.
Paddle Games • "Paddle Games" • the PONG-based games. • PONG is one of the most successful and fertile of game designs • The central element of the game, • intercepting a projectile • with a paddle-controlled piece, • has been used in many variations. • PONG pitted two players in an electronic version of ping-pong. • BREAKOUT required the player to chip away at a wall with the ball.
CIRCUS ATARI • introduced parabolic trajectories for the projectiles and a complex moving wall of balloons. • WARLORDS • took the genre even further; • up to four players (one in each corner) defend brick castles against a projectile bounced around the field by heir shield-paddles.
Music • This has evolved lately, • in both arcades and on the home front. • It currently involves music genre. • focus on music, singing, and dancing. • such as • Bust a Groove, • Parappa the Rapper, and • Dance Dance Revolution
Games of Chance • quite easy to program, • (many versions of craps, blackjack, etc.) • not very popular, • because they do not take advantage of the computer tech. • they lose the advantages of their original technologies. • demonstrate the folly of mindlessly transporting games from one medium to another.
Action Games • rely more on hand/eye coordination • than on story or strategy. (Space Invaders, Quake) • generally fast-paced and reflex-oriented. • The most popular type of action game for the PC: • the first person perspective 3D shooter (e.g., Quake, Unreal Tournament, etc.) • Fighting games (Soul Calibur or Mortal Kombat) • platform side-scroller games (Oddworld: Abe's Exoddus or Heart of Darkness) • over the shoulder games ( Tomb Raider).
Linear in presentation. • The player is usually represented as a powerful character, • selected from a group of several characters. • Grouping action games: • combat games, • sports games, • race games, and • others.
The primary skills demanded of the player: • hand-eye coordination and • fast reaction time. • Action games is characterized by: • real-time play, • heavy emphasis on graphics and sound, and • use of joysticks or paddles • rather than a keyboard.
Combat Games • present a direct, violent confrontation. • The human player must shoot and • destroy the bad guys controlled by the computer. • The challenge is to position oneself properly to avoid being hit by the enemy while shooting him. • many variations on this theme, • most arising from variations on • the geometry of the situation or • the weaponry of the opponents. • STAR RAIDERS (1st person), • SPACEWAR (3rd person) • the player flies through space in a rocket ship • engages enemy spaceships in real-time cosmic dogfights.
ASTEROIDS (shoot-em-up) • MISSILE COMMAND • SPACE INVADERS • TEMPEST (a 3D first-person derivative) • BATTLEZONE • RED BARON (first-person combat game utilizing vector displays) • CAVERNS OF MARS, • YAR’S REVENGE, • CROSSFIRE • DEFENDER
Sports Games • Cross between skills and simulation.
Race Games • involve a straightforward race. • allow the player to move at constant speed, • but extract time penalties for failure to skillfully negotiate an assortment of hazards. • DOWNHILL (skiing game) • must avoid the trees and rocks; • the player’s score is based on his time to complete the course. • MATCH RACER a car-racing game • with oil slicks and obstacles. • NIGHT DRIVER a car-racing game • featuring a first-person view of the road.
problem with race games: • they are not true games but puzzles, • for there is no real interaction in a race • between a player and his opponent. • it is difficult to identify the opponent in these games. • TIME? • A more involved variation on the race game • DOG DAZE • a two-player competitive race
Others • There exist a number of games • that do not fit into this taxonomy very well. • DONKEY KONG, • a race game with intelligent obstacles. • FROGGER • a maze game with moving walls or obstacles, • APPLE PANIC • a maze game and in some ways it is a combat game. • The pace of the game is oddly slow.
STRATEGY GAMES • emphasize logical thinking and planning. • stress resource and time management, • which usually take place precedence over • fast action and character involvement. • Tactical organization and execution necessary, • the game designers usually place the followingin the player's hands: • the decision making skills and • delivery of commands
emphasize cogitation rather than manipulation. • The major distinguishing factor • between strategy games and action games: • the emphasis on motor skills. • All action games require some motor skills; strategy games do not. • real-time play is rare in strategy games • LEGIONNAIRE
We divide strategy games into two categories: • Real-time Strategy Games, • Turn-based strategy games • (War Games and Board Games). • Civilisation • Heroes of Might and Magic. • real time strategy games • add active element and • force the player to consider multiple events occurring at the same time, • Starcraft, and Age of Empires.
ADVENTURE GAMES • involve the player • in a journey of exploration and puzzle-solving. • have a linear storyline: • You set out to accomplish a main goal • through character interaction and • inventory manipulation. • Some traces of the action • Good examples: • Grim Fandango and • Myst or Riven.
ROLE PLAYING GAMES • similar to adventure games, • but rely more on • character growth and development • (usually involving player statistics), • conversation, and • strategic combat than • puzzle-solving. • Huge epics quests and fantasy worlds with non-player characters • story lines are not always linear • as in traditional adventure games.
SIMULATION GAMES (SIMS) • realistically simulate a given • animate or inanimate object • or process. • place gamer in a 3D first-person • perspective and • re-create machinery • such as planes, tanks, helicopters, and submarines. • MiG Alley and Armored Fist. • Wolf • mimic the animal kingdom, • SimEarth, SimCity 3000 or • The Sims. • that require the gamer to build and • manage cities, communities, and • other resources on a grander scale
EDUCATIONAL GAMES • are not exactly a genre of their own. • tend to take another genre, • then make it educational • in terms of some specific set of material.
accomplished through three ways: • Asking direct questions about material, and • giving game-reward for it (such as gold, or carrots, or a win, etc.) • By surrounding the player in material relevant to the lessons you wish to teach, • they learn by osmosis. • By structuring the gameplay in such a way • that the player tends to act in a way that you are trying to teach, or • that the player will discover whatever truths it is you are trying to teach.