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Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912

Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912. The Tokugawa Shogunate. Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868 – also known as the Edo period 1635 – foreign trade limited to China, Korea, and Netherlands at Nagasaki a few times per year Emperor (mikado) ruled in name only

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Early Meiji Japan 1868-1912

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  1. Early Meiji Japan1868-1912

  2. The Tokugawa Shogunate • Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868 – also known as the Edo period • 1635 – foreign trade limited to China, Korea, and Netherlands at Nagasaki a few times per year • Emperor (mikado) ruled in name only • Actual power held by the shogun

  3. Japanese Feudalism Ronin – those samurai without masters Shogun Ninja – a warrior trained to use unorthodox fighting methods (assassination, espionage, martial arts) Daimyo Samurai Peasants, Merchants, etc. Samurai – lived by Bushido, the “way of the warrior” (chivalric code)

  4. Japanese Culture and Economy • Religion • Mixture of native Shintoism (living spirits in all things) and Chinese Confucianism (based on the teachings of Confucius) • Economy • Growing internal trade during the Edo period • Merchants began to surpass the samurai in wealth • Rigid social stratification • But these limits were being tested by the end of the Tokugawa shogunate

  5. Social Unrest in Tokugawa Japan • Emperor was held only as a figurehead leader • Shogun was being attacked to reduce his power • Daimyo needed money • Samurai had become inactive, intellectuals, needed money, resented the loss of prestige • Peasants resented heavy taxes • Merchants resented restrictions on trade

  6. Tokugawa Seclusion Edict1635

  7. Perry Presents Letter To Emperor

  8. Treaty of Kanagawa – 1854The first of many unequal treaties that opened Japan and Japanese ports

  9. Japanese Reaction

  10. Choshu incident 1863 Choshu tries to sink Western ships Choshu marches against Kyoto to capture Emperor but fails Tokugawa fails to punish Choshu Meiji Restoration: Lead-up

  11. 1864: Ships from England, France, Holland and the US all attack the Choshu Choshu leaders recognize futility of resistance – for now Map out new response including modernization/Westernization Meiji Restoration: Lead-up Young Choshu leaders visit London 1860s

  12. Choshu and Satsuma draw up alliance Plot revolution Young Samurai decide to reform Japan March on Kyoto and seize new young Emperor Meiji Meiji Restoration1868 Satsuma/Choshu Plotters

  13. Declare Restoration of the Emperor to his rightful place Liberate the Emperor from Tokugawa’s rule Emperor to rule directly Emperor issues decree ending the rule of the Tokugawa Shoguns Meiji Restoration1868 Young Emperor Meiji

  14. Meiji Restoration • Tokugawa Shogunate counter attacks • Satsuma/Choshu alliance wins • Meiji Emperor assumes leadership with Satsuma and Choshu based committee of advisors • New Government made up of young Samurai with a smattering of nobles

  15. Meiji Restoration Why Satsuma and Choshu? • Two richest Han • Choshu: 100 + years of illegal, secret investment in commercial enterprises • They were secretly running a merchant trade • Satsuma: Profitable sugar monopoly • Both: Secretly and illegally traded with Western nations for technology and military equipment Choshu   Satsuma

  16. Collective leadership with the Emperor 20-30 young leaders Mostly samurai Mostly from Satsuma or Choshu Includes some reformers among the royal court Known as the Meiji Oligarchy Meiji Leadership

  17. Note: Emperor Meiji is still the heir to the Yamato clan dynasty His ancestors had reigned from @ 300 CE Since the beginning of the Kamakura period, Shoguns ruled while the emperor reigned Meiji Restoration: Still the Yamato heir is relevant. Does he rule or reign? Imperial Role??

  18. To survive Japan must modernize… “Enrich the country; Strengthen the military” - Fukoku Kyohei Japan must learn from the West Japan must Adapt to a Western-dominated world By learning and adapting, Japan can become modern By becoming modern they can become rich By becoming rich they can build a strong army With a strong army they can become truly independent Fukoku Kyohei! Meiji Oligarchy:Ruling Platform

  19. Iwakura Mission: - Prince Ito Hirobumi Japan sends diplomatic mission to Western nations San Francisco  across the US London  Continental Europe Goals: Build relationships: earn Western respect Gain knowledge: patterns of business, science, and government Meiji OligarchyRuling Platform

  20. Meiji Restoration: Rapid Westernization / modernization Japan launches wholesale Westernization drive Wholesale rejection of all things Japanese

  21. Why was Japan able to modernize so quickly? • Cultural and linguistic uniformity • Adopted and modified outside models to fit Japan • Studied abroad and brought teachers back • Hard-working, industrious, skilled people • Large educated group of people • Willing to sacrifice for the future and good of Japan • Loyalty to the emperor • Modernized at the expense of the government, which then turned businesses over to wealthy families  Zaibatsu

  22. Meiji Oligarchy:Successful Late Developing State • Dramatic Economic take-off • Motivated by feelings of insecurity • Driven by need to achieve equality with West (fear of Western imperialism and loss of sovereignty were the prime motivators) • Spurred by desire to become powerful and thus independent Fukoku Kyohei!!

  23. Meiji Constitution a gift from the Emperor Imperial Sovereignty All equal before the law Transcendental cabinet doesn’t answer to parliament (Diet) Independent military Answers only to the Emperor Strong position in Cabinet Elite Bureaucracy Well educated Powerful, professional, prestigious Insulated from electoral pressure Meiji Constitution

  24. Bureaucracy in Japan • Difficult Civil Service Exam • Political appointments minimal • Elite educational requirements • Tokyo National University, Dept. of Law • Extraordinary policy-making authority • Patterned after Kaiser Wilhelm's Germany • Similar to France – elite education

  25. Legislature in Meiji Constitution • Diet • Two Houses * House of Representatives * House of Peers • Little power except BUDGET * On budget, if impasse occurs, last year’s budget automatically rolls over * This power surprisingly became the source of an expanded legislative role

  26. Cabinet in Meiji Constitution • Transcendental • Doesn’t answer to Diet • Only to Emperor • Special Military Ministers • In later periods military ministers had to be active duty officers • Cabinet was incomplete without military ministers • Gave military extraordinary power to drive government

  27. Japanese Imperialism • Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) - Treaty of Shimonoseki • Russo-Japanese War (1904 -05) - Treaty of Portsmouth • Annexation of Korea (1910)

  28. Sino-Japanese War 1894-95 Key Events Results Treaty of Shimonoseki - China recognizes Korean independence - China cedes to Japan 1) Liaodong Peninsula (Port Arthur) 2) Pescadores Island 3) Taiwan Russia, Germany & France force Japan to give back Port Arthur • Japan install puppet government in Korea • Japan sinks British ship carrying Chinese soldiers • Japan attacks Korea, Liaodong Peninsula (Port Arthur), Pescadores Islands, and Taiwan

  29. Russo-Japanese War1904-05 Key Events Results Treaty of Portsmouth – negotiated by Pres. Teddy Roosevelt (Nobel Peace Prize) 1) Russia to not obstruct Japan in Korea 2) Japan is given Port Arthur, Liaodong Peninsula, and South Sakhalin Islands 3) Controls part of Manchuria Japan is recognized as a world naval power • Japanese navy attacks Russian fleet in Port Arthur and Korea • Battle of Yalu River (Land battle) • Battle of Yellow Sea – 1st major battle between modern battleships – over Port Arthur • Battle of Mukden (Manchuria) – land battle • Battle of Tsushima Strait – major naval battle • To the Western world’s surprise, Japan wins all of these battles

  30. Annexation of Korea1910 Key Events Results Korea becomes part of Japan Japan modernizes Korea to benefit its industrial and agricultural needs Japanese rule Korea harshly giving rise to Korean nationalism Japan crushes all nationalistic efforts • 1905 – With Treaty of Portsmouth, Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan • 8/27/1910 – Korean Prime Minister signs the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty

  31. http://plhb.tripod.com/ - Lead up to Pearl Harbor • http://history.hanover.edu/texts/1889con.html - Meiji Constitution

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