Face Recognition and Its applications PART 1 Based on works of: Jinshan Tang; Ariel P from Hebrew University; Mircea Focşa, UMFT; Xiaozhen Niu, Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta; Christine Podilchuk, email@example.com, http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/wiselab
Contents • Introduction • Face detection using color information • Face matching • Face Segmentation/Detection • Facial Feature extraction • Face Recognition • Video-based Face Recognition • Comparison • Conclusion • Reference
Face Segmentation/Detection • During the past ten years, considerable progress has been made in multi-face recognition area, • This includes: • Example-based learning approach by Sung and Poggio (1994). • The neural network approach by Rowley et al. (1998). • Support vector machine (SVM) by Osuna et al. (1997).
Basic steps for face recognition Input face image Face detection Face recognition Face feature extraction Face database Feature Matching Decision maker Output result
Face detection • Geometric information based face detection • Color information based face detection • Combining them together (a) Geometric information based face detection (b) Color information based face detection
Color information based face detection Face color is different from background Choice of color spaces is very important • Color Spaces: • R,G,B • YCbCr • YUV • r,g • …….. Skin color Background color Figure 4. Skin color distribution in a complex background
Ideas: (1) compensate for lightning, (2) separate by transforming to new (sub) space.
Ideas: (1) compensate for lightning, (2) separate by transforming to new (sub) space. (3) clustering.
Feature-based face detection Color can be used in segmentation and grouping of image subareas.
Location and shape parameters of eyes are the most important features to be detected through segmentation and morphological operations (dilation and erosion).
Ideas: • Eyes • Mouth • Boundary (edge detection) • Boundary approximated to ellipse or something (Hough)
The concept of eye glasses The concept of half-profiles
Face Matching • Feature based face matching • Template matching Features versus templates
Feature based face matching You can extract various features Face image From face detection Normalization Feature extraction Feature vector classifier Output results Decision maker You can use various decision makers You can use various classifiers
Normalization Eye location Normalization: rotation normalization, scale normalization Averaged for objects Cross Correlation : object template
Feature extraction • Eyebrow thickness and vertical position at the eye center position • A coarse description of the left eyebrow’s arches • Nose vertical position and width • Mouth vertical position, width, height upper and lower lips • eleven radii describing the chin shape • Bigonial breadth (face width at nose position) • Zygomatic breadth (face width halfway between nose tip and eyes). 3.5-D feature vector
This is just one example of classifier, others are Decision Trees, expressions, decomposed structures, NNs. Classifier Bayes classifier Rank the distance values Output the results Feature vector Computer (j=2,3,…N)
ANN Classifier Feature vector Class 1 Class2 ANN one-class-in-one network multi-class-in-one network MAXNET Classification results Fig.2. one-class-in-one network
Template matching Templates database You have to create the data base of templates for all people you want to recognize Produce a template Face image From face detection Normalization matching Output results Decision maker
There are different templates used in various regions of the normalized face. Various methods can be used to compress information for each template.
Example-based learning approach (EBL) Three parts: • The image is divided into many possible-overlapping windows, • each window pattern gets classified as either “a face” or “not a face” based on a set of local image measurements. • For each new pattern to be classified, the system computes a set of different measurements between the new pattern and the canonical face model. • A trained classifier identifies the new pattern as “a face” or “not a face”.
Neural network (NN) • Kanade et al. first proposed an NN-based approach in 1996. • Although NN have received significant attention in many research areas, few applications were successful in face recognition. Why?
Neural network (NN) • It’s easy to train a neural network with samples which contain faces, but it is much harder to train a neural network with samples which do not. • The number of “non-face” samples are just too large.
Neural network (NN) • Neural network-based filter. • A small filter window is used to scan through all portions of the image, • and to detect whether a face exists in each window. • Merging overlapping detections and arbitration. By setting a small threshold, many false detections can be eliminated.
SVM (Support Vector Machine) • SVM was first proposed in 1997, it can be viewed as a way to train polynomial neural network or radial basic function classifiers. • Can improve the accuracy and reduce the computation.
Comparison with Example Based Learning (EBL) • Test results reported in 1997. • Using two test sets (155 faces). • SVM achieved better detection rate and fewer false alarms.
Recent approaches Face segmentation/detection research area still remain active, for example: • An integrated SVM approach to multi-face detection and recognition was proposed in 2000. • A technique of background learning was proposed in August 2002. Still lots of potential!
Static face recognition • Numerous face recognition methods/algorithms have been proposed in last 20 years, • several representative approaches are: • Eigenface • LDA/FDA (Linear DA, Fisher DA) Discriminant analysis (algorithm) • Neural network (NN) • PCA – Principal Component Analysis • Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM) • Continuous Density HMM (CDHMM).
Eigenface The basic steps are: • Registration. A face in an input image first must be located and registered in a standard-size frame. • Eigenpresentation. • Every face in the database can be represented as a vector of weights, • the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to encode face images and capture face features. • Identification. This part is done by locating the images in the database whose weights are the closest (in Euclidean distance) to the weights of the test images.
LDA/FDA • Face recognition method using LDA/FDA is called the fishface method. • Eigenface use linear PCA. It is not optimal to discrimination for one face class from others. • Fishface method seeks to find a linear transformation to maximize the between-class scatter and minimize the within-class scatter. • Test results demonstrated LDA/FDA is better than eigenface using linear PCA (1997).
Test results of LDA • Test results of a subspace LDA-based face recognition method in 1999.
Video-based Face Recognition • Three challenges: • Low quality • Small images • Characteristics of face/human objects. • Three advantages: • Allows much more information. • Tracking of face image. • Provides continuity, • this allows reuse of classification information from high-quality images in processing low-quality images from a video sequence.
Basic steps for video-based face recognition • Object segmentation/detection. • Motion structure. • The goal of this step is to estimate the 3D depths of points from the image sequence. • 3D models for faces. • Using a 3D model to match frontal views of the face. • Non-rigid motion analysis.
Recent approaches Most video-based face recognition system has three modules for • detection, • tracking • and recognition. • An access control system using Radial Basis Function (RBS) network was proposed in 1997. • A generic approach based on posterior estimation using sequential Monte Carlo methods was proposed in 2000. • A scheme based on streaming face recognition (SFR) was propose in August 2002.
The Streaming Face Recognition (SFR) scheme • Combine several decision rules together, such as: • Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM) and • Continuous Density HMM (CDHMM). • The test result achieved a 99% correct recognition rate in the intelligent room.
Comparison Two most representative and important protocols for face recognition evaluations: • The FERET protocol (1994). • Consists of 14,126 images of 1199 individuals. • Three evaluation tests had been administered in 1994, 1996, and 1997. • The XM2VTS protocol (1999). • Expansion of previous M2VTS program (5 shots of each of 37 subjects). • Now consists 295 subjects. • The results of M2VTS/XM2VTS can be used in wide range of applications.
1996/1997 FERET Evaluations • Compared ten algorithms.
Conclusion • Face recognition has many potential applications. • For many years not very successful, • we need to improve the accuracy of face recognition • Combining face recognition and other biometric recognition technologies, • Such as: • fingerprint recognition technology, • voice recognition technologies • and so on For our applications accuracy is much more important than speed.
Conclusion • Significant achievements have been made recently. • LDA-based methods and NN-based methods are very successful. • FERET and XM2VTS have had a significant impact to the developing of face recognition algorithms. • Challenges still exist, such as pose changing and illumination changing. • Face recognition area will remain active for a long time.
Reference  W. Zhao, R. Chellappa, A. Rosenfeld, and P.J. Phillips, Face Recognition: A Literature Survey, UMD CFAR Technical Report CAR-TR-948, 2000.  K. Sung and T. Poggio, Example-based Learning for View-based Human Face Detection, A.I. Memo 1521, MIT A.I. Laboratory, 1994.  H.A. Rowley, S. Baluja, and T. Kanade, Neural Network Based Face Detection, IEEE Trans. On Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 20, 1998.  E. Osuna, R. Freund, and F. Girosi, Training Support Vector Machines: An Application to Face Recognition, in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 130-136, 1997.  M. Turk and A. Pentland, Eigenfaces for Recognition, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol.3, pp. 72-86, 1991.  W. Zhao, Robust Image Based 3D Face Recognition, PhD thesis, University of Maryland, 1999.  K.S. Huang and M.M. Trivedi, Streaming Face Recognition using Multicamera Video Arrays, 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR). August 11-15, 2002.  P.J. Phillips, P. Rauss, and S. Der, FERET (Face Recognition Technology) Recognition Algorithm Development and Test Report, Technical Report ARL-TR 995, U.S. Army Research Laboratory.  K. Messer, J. Matas, J. Kittler, J. Luettin, and G. Maitre, XM2VTSDB: The Extended M2VTS Database, in Proceedings, International Conference on Audio and Video-based Person Authentication, pp. 72-77, 1999.