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SMALL ENGINES. ENGINE. OPERATION FOR. A FOUR STROKE. ENGINE. SMALL ENGINES. An engine is a device which converts energy into mechanical motion to do work. Small engines are described as internal combustion engines rated up to 25 horsepower.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

SMALL ENGINES

ENGINE

OPERATION FOR

A FOUR STROKE

ENGINE

slide2

SMALL ENGINES

  • An engine is a device which converts energy into mechanical motion to do work.
  • Small engines are described as internal combustion engines rated up to 25 horsepower.
  • A small engine has either a spark ignition or a compression ignition based on how the fuel is ignited.
  • Small engines are classified as either four-stroke cycle engines or two-stroke cycle engines.
slide3

PARTS OF THE ENGINE

  • CYLINDER BLOCK

Engine component which consists of the cylinder bore, cooling fins, and valve train components. Made of cast aluminum alloy that are lightweight and dissipate heat rapidly.

  • CYLINDER HEAD

Engine component made out of cast aluminum alloy fastened to the end of the cylinder block farthest from the crankshaft.

  • COOLING FINS

An integral thin cast strip designed to provide efficient air circulation and dissipation of heat away from the engine cylinder block into the air stream.

  • HEAD GASKET

A filler material placed between the cylinder block and cylinder head to seal the combustion chamber. Made of soft metals and graphite layered together.

  • SPARK PLUG

Component that isolates the electricity and produces the spark for the engine

slide4

PARTS OF THE ENGINE

  • PISTON

A cylindrical engine component that slides back and forth in the cylinder bore by forces produced during the combustion process.

  • CONNECTING ROD

Engine component that transfers motion from the piston to the crankshaft and functions as a lever arm.

  • CRANKSHAFT

An engine component that converts linear (reciprocating) motion of the piston into rotary motion.

  • FLYWHEEL

A cast iron disk that is mounted at one end of the crankshaft to provide inertia for the engine.

  • COUNTERWEIGHTS

A protruding mass cast into the crankshaft which partially balances the forces of a reciprocating piston.

slide5

PARTS OF THE ENGINE

PISTON

PISTON:

A cylindrical engine component that slides back and forth in the cylinder bore by forces produced during the combustion process.

slide6

PARTS OF THE ENGINE

PISTON

PISTON:

DIFFERENT PISTON TYPES:

FLAT

IRREGULAR

DISHED

DOMED

slide7

PARTS OF THE ENGINE

PISTON

PISTON RINGS:

An expandable split ring used to provide a seal between the piston and the cylinder wall

Three types:

  • COMPRESSION RING
  • WIPER RING
  • OIL RING

1

2

3

slide8

PARTS OF THE ENGINE

VALVE TRAIN

VALVE HEAD

MARGIN

VALVE FACE

VALVE SEAT

VALVE NECK

VALVE GUIDE

VALVE SPRING

VALVE ROTATOR

VALVE SPRING RETAINER

slide9

FOUR STROKE CYCLE ENGINE

  • INTAKE STROKE
  • COMPRESSIONSTROKE
  • POWER STROKE
  • EXHAUST STROKE
intake stroke
INTAKE STROKE
  • Occurs from TDC to BDC
  • Intake valve opens
  • Air-Fuel that was previously mixed in the carburetor is now sucked into the combustion chamber due to the low pressure created inside.
compression stroke
COMPRESSION STROKE
  • Compresses the Air-Fuel mixture
  • By compressing the Air-Fuel mixture:
  • Allows for more energy to be released.
  • Increases fuel vaporization
  • Allows for more complete burning
power stroke
POWER STROKE
  • Spark occurs igniting compressed air-fuel mixture
  • Spark occurs 20 degrees before TDC so the flame front can spread throughout combustion chamber
  • Gases ignite pushing piston away from the cylinder head
  • Linear motion from the piston is transferred into a rotary motion on the crankshaft
exhaust stroke
EXHAUST STROKE
  • Exhaust valve opens
  • Inertia from the flywheel and other parts push the piston back up toward TDC, pushing the spent gases out of the combustion chamber.