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Fuels and Lubricants for Small Engines. Jim Wills. Biosystems Engineering and Environmental Science Department Extension University of Tennessee. Two Main Types of Small Engines on Lawn and Garden Equipment. Four-Stroke Cycle Two-Stroke Cycle. Cooling System.

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Presentation Transcript
jim wills
Jim Wills
  • Biosystems Engineering and Environmental Science Department
  • Extension
  • University of Tennessee

UT Extension

two main types of small engines on lawn and garden equipment
Two Main Types of Small Engines on Lawn and Garden Equipment
  • Four-Stroke Cycle
  • Two-Stroke Cycle

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cooling system
Cooling System
  • Most engines on lawn and garden equipment are air cooled
  • Fan on flywheel circulates air over engine for cooling while engine is running
  • Water cooled engines have radiator and liquid coolant circulating in water jacket around engine

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flywheel fan
Flywheel/Fan

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four stroke engines
Four-Stroke Engines
  • Four strokes* of the engine for one power cycle
  • Stroke 1 – Intake
  • Stroke 2 – Compression
  • Stroke 3 – Power
  • Stroke 4 – Exhaust

* A stroke is one up or down movement of the piston in the cylinder

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typical four stroke lawn and garden equipment
Typical Four Stroke Lawn and Garden Equipment
  • Push-Type Lawn Mowers
  • Lawn Tractors
  • Garden Tractors
  • Pressure Washers
  • Chippers/Shreaders
  • Garden Tillers

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typical two stroke equipment
Typical Two-Stroke Equipment
  • Chainsaws
  • Weed Trimmers
  • Leaf Blowers
  • Hedge Clippers
  • Air Compressors
  • Small Garden Tillers
  • Some push type lawnmowers

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four stroke engine characteristics
Four-Stroke Engine Characteristics
  • Separate fuel tank and oil reservoir
  • Heavier/larger than same HP two-cycle
  • Cannot be tilted much to side
  • Longer engine life
  • Larger HP uses

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two stroke engine characteristics
Two-Stroke Engine Characteristics
  • Fuel and oil are mixed in fuel tank
  • No separate reservoir for oil*
  • Can be operated on side and upside down
  • Lighter/smaller for given HP
  • Shorter overall engine life
  • Usually more noise and smoke

* Some boat motors and motorcycles havea reservoir

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slide14
Dirt!
  • 60% to 70% of all failures are caused by dirt* getting into engine

*Dust, insects, bits of grass, etc.

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service air filter on a regular basis usually once a season
Service air filter on a regular basis (usually once a season)
  • Service more often under dusty or adverse conditions

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for every gallon of gasoline used the air filter must clean 10 000 to 11 000 gallons of air
For every gallon of gasoline used, the air filter must clean 10,000 to 11,000 gallons of air

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carburetor
Carburetor

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failure to use proper oil
Failure to use proper oil*

* Viscosity (thick or thin)

* API Classification (SJ, SL, Etc.)

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failure to change oil on a regular schedule
Failure to change oil on a regular schedule
  • Mileage
  • Hours of use
  • Time of use (weeks, months, etc.)

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failure to maintain proper oil level in crankcase
Failure to maintain proper oil level in crankcase
  • Check dip stick
  • Check oil level plug

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checking oil level
Checking Oil Level

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failure to use clean fresh fuel
Failure to use clean, fresh fuel
  • Dirty fuel tank
  • Dirty fuel can
  • Dirty funnel
  • Trash/dirt around fuel cap

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fuel filter
Fuel Filter

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use a suitable fuel container to prevent fuel contamination and insure safety
Use a suitable fuel container to prevent fuel contamination and insure safety
  • Metal cans will eventually rust inside
  • Plastic containers will not rust
  • Use a funnel with mesh filter

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failure to use proper fuel
Failure to use proper fuel
  • Unleaded fuel is cleaner burning
  • Choose proper fuel octane level
  • Do not use fuel containing alcohol
  • Use lead substitutes if 1974 or older

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operating tips to extend engine life
Operating tips to extend engine life
  • Let engine idle for two minutes before stopping
  • Never stop under load
  • Avoid stalls and sudden impacts

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avoid impacts
Avoid Impacts

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flywheel keyway
Flywheel Keyway

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safety
SAFETY!!!
  • Use approved fuel containers
  • Never fuel a hot engine
  • Stop engine before making repairs or adjustments

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motor oils
Motor Oils

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castrol brand oil
Castrol Brand Oil

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functions of motor oil
Functions of Motor Oil
  • Lubricate moving parts
  • Seal around gaskets, seals, piston rings
  • Clean contaminates from engine parts
  • Remove excess heat from engine

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api american petroleum institute circle contains api service classification and viscosity
API (American Petroleum Institute) circle contains API Service Classification and Viscosity

UT Extension

api circle
API Circle

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viscosity
VISCOSITY
  • Is the oil thick or thin?
  • Affected by temperature
  • Affected by shear of oil molecules in lubrication process
  • All oils are tested at same temperatures to establish viscosity rating

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viscosity values
Viscosity Values
  • SAE 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W
  • SAE 30, 40, 50
  • SAE 10W-30, 5W-30, 15W-50, 10W-40, etc.
  • “W” means suitable for wintertime use (cold temperatures)
  • “SAE”- Society of Automotive Engineers

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api service classifications
API Service Classifications
  • “S” - for gasoline engines

(S- Spark ignition)

  • “C” - for diesel engines

(C- Compression ignition)

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gasoline classes
Gasoline Classes
  • SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF, SG, SH, SJ, SL
  • SA is lowest quality
  • SL is highest quality

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diesel classes
Diesel Classes
  • CA, CB, CC, CD, CE, CF, CG, CH
  • CA is lowest quality
  • CH is highest quality

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petroleum based oils
Petroleum Based Oils
  • Base stock of about 85% oil by volume
  • Additives of about 15% by volume
  • Additives include detergent, anti-oxidation, anti-corrosion, extreme heat, extreme pressure, anti-rust, etc.

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value of oil additives
Value of Oil Additives?
  • Slick 50, T-Plus, STP, Motor Honey, etc.
  • Usually not worth the price !!!

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t plus additive
T-Plus Additive

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why change motor oil
Why Change Motor Oil?
  • Replace additives
  • Remove contaminants ( water, acid, carbon, etc.

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when to change motor oil
When to Change Motor Oil?
  • At recommended mileage

(3,000 on cars, trucks, campers, etc.)

  • At 50 hours on small engines
  • More often under severe conditions (pulling heavy loads, steep

climbing, etc.)

  • Change when oil is hot, not cold

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changing brands of oil
Changing Brands of Oil
  • You do not have to use the same brand of oil forever in a given engine
  • To change brands, drain old brand and replace with new brand – change oil filter at same time
  • Use same viscosity

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oil for your small engines
Oil for Your Small Engines
  • SAE 30*
  • SAE 10W-30
  • Synthetic oil

* Above 40 degrees F

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temperature chart
Temperature Chart

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synthetic motor oil
Synthetic Motor Oil
  • Better than petroleum based oil
  • More expensive

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synthetic oils
Synthetic Oils

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advantages of synthetic oil
Advantages of Synthetic Oil
  • More detergent additive
  • Better cold weather lubrication
  • Better high temperature protection
  • Longer engine life
  • Better lubrication
  • Better fuel efficiency
  • Can be mixed with petroleum oil

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disadvantages of synthetic
Disadvantages of Synthetic
  • Expensive (about $4.50/quart)
  • Not recommended for turbochargers
  • Not for dirty engines (inside of engine)
  • Not for most diesels
  • Not for new engines

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tips for synthetic use
Tips for Synthetic Use
  • Use same viscosity
  • Can be mixed with petroleum based oil
  • Use regular oil filter
  • Change at same change intervals

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not the same as engine oils
Not the same as engine oils
  • Different additive package
  • Different viscosity
  • Higher price
  • Different mix ratios
  • Different rating system

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mix with gasoline for engine lubrication
Mix with Gasolinefor Engine Lubrication
  • Use only two-cycle oils
  • Use proper ratio of gas to oil
  • Use proper type of oil (TC or TSC-3)
  • One mix and exact mix simplify mixing

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mix ratios
Mix Ratios
  • Parts of gas and oil to be mixed
  • Can be ounces, pints, quarts, gallons
  • Examples:
  • 16:1 16 parts gas to 1 part oil
  • 24:1 24 parts of gas to 1 part oil
  • 50:1 50 parts of gas to 1 part oil

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making one gallon mix
Making one gallon mix

128 ounces in one gallon

  • 16:1 mix
  • 16 parts gas (128 oz.) to 1 part oil (8 oz.)
  • 50:1 mix
  • 50 parts gas (128 oz.) to 1 part oil (2.6 oz.)

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two cycle oil classes
Two-Cycle Oil Classes
  • TA, TB, TC*, TD
  • TSC-1, TSC-2, TSC-3*, TSC-4
  • ONE MIX*
  • EXACT MIX*

* For lawn and garden equipment

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two cycle oil
Two-Cycle Oil

UT Extension

two cycle oil64
Two-Cycle Oil

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exact mix oil
Exact Mix Oil

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fuels for engines
Fuels for Engines

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octane ratings for gasoline
Octane Ratings for Gasoline
  • Octane rating is a measure of resistance to pre-ignition of fuel

UT Extension

engine ignition
Engine Ignition

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octane ratings
Octane Ratings
  • 87 Octane – Regular
  • 89 Octane – Regular+
  • 91+ Octane - Premium

UT Extension

87 octane fuel
87 Octane Fuel
  • Low resistance to pre-ignition – usually best for 4-cycle lawn and garden and automobile engines that are not high compression

UT Extension

89 octane fuel
89 Octane Fuel
  • Best for engines that knock or ping slightly on 87 octane fuel or older engines with slight carbon build-up in combustion chamber

UT Extension

91 octane fuels
91+ Octane Fuels
  • Best for high compression engines or engines that knock or ping on 89 octane fuels

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leaded vs unleaded gas
Leaded vs. Unleaded Gas
  • Lead was banned by EPA in 1989 because of air pollution
  • Lead was put in gasoline to boost octane levels
  • Some engines built before 1974 need lead to lubricate exhaust valves and seats

Use a lead substitute in pre-1974 models

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octane boosters
Octane Boosters
  • Tetraethyl Lead*
  • Ethanol Alcohol
  • Methanol Alcohol
  • Oxinol
  • MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether)*

* Now Banned from use

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seasonal blends of gasoline
Seasonal Blends of Gasoline
  • Winter Blend – Very Volatile
  • Spring Blend – Moderately Volatile
  • Summer Blend – Low Volatility
  • Fall Blend – Moderate Volatility

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gasohol
Gasohol
  • A mixture of 90% gasoline and 10% alcohol (usually ethanol)
  • About 40% less air pollution from gasohol
  • Can cause severe problems in some engines used infrequently

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problems with gasohol
Problems with Gasohol
  • Alcohol attracts water to fuel system
  • Alcohol destroys plasticizers in gaskets, o-rings, seals, floats, diaphragms, etc.
  • Alcohol causes severe corrosion
  • Alcohol dissolves some additives in two-cycle oils

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gasohol vs gasoline
Gasohol vs. Gasoline
  • Gasohol – 78,000 BTU’s per gallon
  • Gasoline – 115,000 BTU’s per gallon

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gasohol and small engines
Gasohol and Small Engines
  • Avoid use of gasohol fuels in small engines- especially two-cycle engines

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fuel useful life
Fuel Useful Life*
  • Gasoline – about 90 days
  • Gasoline + Two-cycle oil – About 60 days
  • Diesel Fuel – About two years

* Depends greatly on temperature and humidity

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fuel stabilizers
Fuel Stabilizers
  • Can be added to fuel in storage container
  • Can be added to fuel storage tanks
  • Can be added to fuel tank on engine
  • Can be added to fuel tank for long term storage of equipment*

* Run engine for five minutes to distribute stabilizer to all parts of fuel system

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fuel life with stabilizers
Fuel Life with Stabilizers
  • Gasoline – Up to two years
  • Gasoline + Oil – Up to one year
  • Diesel Fuel – Over two years

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stabilizer brands
Stabilizer Brands*
  • STA-BIL
  • GUMOUT
  • McCullogh
  • Others

*Available at Wal-Mart, K-Mart, Auto parts stores, etc.

*Costs about 10 cents/gallon of fuel

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sta bil stabilizer
STA-BIL Stabilizer

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disposal of used oil
Disposal of Used Oil
  • Contains carcinogens !!!
  • Do not pour on ground !!!
  • Collect oil in suitable container
  • Take to recycling center for disposal
  • Centers will also take gear oil, transmission fluid, antifreeze, freon,

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used oil
Used Oil
  • One gallon will foul taste of one million gallons of fresh water
  • Toxic to plants and animals
  • Can be refined into new oil*

*One gallon of used oil will make 2.5 quarts of new oil

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off season storage of small engines
Off Season Storage of Small Engines
  • Change engine oil
  • Drain fuel tank*
  • Clean exterior of engine
  • Remove spark plug, add one table spoon oil, replace spark plug
  • Cover loosely to keep clean
  • Store in dry location

* Add fuel stabilizer to fuel tank

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liquid cooling systems
Liquid Cooling Systems
  • Circulating fluid (coolant) assists in removing heat of combustion
  • Coolant is usually a mixture of antifreeze and water
  • Coolant must be changed periodically to remove corrosion and replace additives

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antifreeze types
Antifreeze Types
  • Ethylene glycol (green)
  • Propylene glycol (green)
  • Long-Life ethylene glycol (orange)

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replacing antifreeze
Replacing Antifreeze*
  • Regular antifreeze – Drain, flush and replace every one to two years
  • Long life antifreeze – Drain, flush, replace every 5 years or 100,000 to 150,000 miles

* Additives include corrosion inhibitors, sealers, water pump lubricant, heat transfer compounds

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toxicity
Toxicity
  • Ethylene glycol – very toxic
  • Propylene glycol – non toxic*

* Will be slightly toxic after use in cooling system – picks up contaminants such as lead, mercury

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freeze protection
Freeze Protection
  • Pure antifreeze – minus 9 F
  • 50% water + 50% antifreeze – minus 34 F
  • 30% water + 70% antifreeze – minus 84 F

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boil over protection
Boil-Over Protection
  • Pure antifreeze – 98 degrees F
  • 50% water + 50% antifreeze – 265 F
  • 30% water + 70% antifreeze – 282 F

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mixing anti freezes
Mixing Anti-Freezes
  • Regular antifreeze (green) and Long-life antifreeze (orange) cannotbe mixed !!!!!!!
  • Regular antifreeze contains alkaline corrosion inhibitors
  • Long life antifreeze contains organic acid corrosion inhibitors

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slide98
The Beginning of a Better Maintenance Program and Longer Life for Engines on Your Lawn and Garden Equipment

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