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The Muscular System

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  1. The Muscular System Southern Boone County HS Dual Credit Anatomy Bill Palmer

  2. The Muscular System • Muscles are organs • There are more than 700 muscles in the human

  3. The Muscular System Four Properties of Muscle Tissue • Excitability-very sensitive to input from nerves • Contractility-cells contract • Elasticity-ability to return to original shape • Extensibility-cells must extend when opposite muscle contracts

  4. The Muscular System Five Functions of Skeletal Muscle Tissue • Body Movement- Muscles work with the skeleton to provide movement • Posture-muscles must contract to maintain posture • Temperature Regulation-muscle contraction produces heat to keep body warm • Storage of materials-sphincters (circular muscles) open and close to move material • Support-protect and support organs (abdominal muscles)

  5. Each muscle is composed of a group of muscle fascicle Each fascicle is composed of a group of muscle fibers Muscle fibers are covered by three connective tissue layers Endomysium-inner layer Perimysium-middle layer Epimysium-outer layer The Muscular System

  6. The Muscular System

  7. The Muscular System • Muscle Attachments • Muscle fibers unite to form Tendons • Most tendons cross at least one moveable joint • Origin-fixed or less moveable end of muscle • Insertion-more moveable end of muscle

  8. The Muscular System • Tendonitis • Inflammation of tendon or sheath surrounding tendon • Caused by overuse of tendon • Age, arthritis play a role • Treatment • Rest • Ice • NSAIDs • Stretching and exercise help strengthen tendon • Surgery

  9. The Muscular System Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Exercise builds muscle Muscle building requires diet, proper exercise routine, rest Lack of exercise cause muscle to atrophy (waste away)

  10. The Muscular System • Hypertrophy-increase in muscle tone • Exercise builds mitochondria, glycogen, and ATP • More muscle fibers • Hypotonia-decreased muscle tone, flaccid muscles,

  11. The Muscular System • Anabolic Steroids • Synthetic substances that mimic male testosterone-more than 100 are known • Stimulate manufacture of muscle proteins • Large doses needed • Side effects include: heart attack, kidney damage, aggressive behavior “roid rage”, tumors, testicular atrophy, acne, personality aberrations, “man boobs”

  12. The Muscular System

  13. The Muscular System

  14. The Muscular System IS THIS REAL?

  15. The Muscular System • Anabolic Steroids • Women grow hair, menstrual problems, atrophy of uterus and breast.

  16. The Muscular System • FOUR TYPES OF MUSCLES • Circular muscle (sphincter)-arranged around an opening or recess (eye, mouth, anus) • Convergent muscle-triangular muscle with a common attachment site (pectoralis major) • Parallel muscle-long thin muscles (rectus adominis “six-pack”) • Pennate muscle-one or more tendons (most muscles)

  17. The Muscular System

  18. The Muscular System Action of Skeletal Muscles • Muscles work in pairs-three types • 1) Agonist-contract to make a movement (triceps brachii agonist that causes extension) • 2) Antagonist-oppose the agonist • 3) Synergist-assist a prime mover

  19. The Muscular System • Names of Muscles include clues to their ID • Muscle action-Flexor carpi radialis • Body region- Quadratis femoris • Attachment- Sternocleidomastoid • Orientation of fibers-Rectus abdominus • Shape and size-Deltoid • Origin-Biceps femoris

  20. The Muscular System • Names of Muscles include clues to their ID • Muscle action-Flexor carpi radialis • Body region- Quadratis femoris • Attachment- Sternocleidomastoid • Orientation of fibers-Rectus abdominus • Shape and size-Deltoid • Origin-Biceps femoris

  21. The Muscular System

  22. The Muscular System • General Muscle Types • Skeletal Muscle-Voluntary: long fibers, many nuclei, striated (biceps) • Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary: Short branched fibers, 1 or 2 central nuclei, striated (heart) • Smooth Muscle- Involuntary: Spindle shaped fibers, one central nucleus, no striations (intestines)

  23. The Muscular System

  24. The Muscular System • Aging decreases the elasticity and diameter of muscle fibers. Ability to exercise decreases with age. • Muscle system begins to develop during the fourth week.

  25. The Muscular System Neuromuscular Diseases Fibromyalgia-pain, stiffness, fatigue, depression Cause not known Affects 1-2% of population, mostly women Treatment=NSAIDs, exercise, reduce caffeine and smoking

  26. Neuromuscular Diseases Muscular Dystrophy-hereditary Skeletal muscles degenerate, lose strength Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) most common affects males Most die by age 20 The Muscular System

  27. The Muscular System Neuromuscular Diseases Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Affects 1 in 10,000 people (mostly women, 20-40 years old) Antibodies attack muscle nerves Treat with drugs Variations in affects on life span PTOSIS-Drooping of eyelid

  28. The Muscular System Neuromuscular Diseases Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) Common-affects 50% of 30-60 year olds Associated with use of posture muscles Muscles tighten and twitch Treatment is NSAIDs, massage,

  29. The Muscular System- Wrap-ups • How many muscles are there in the human body? • What are the four properties of muscle tissue? • What are the five functions of the muscular system? • What are the three components of a muscle? • How are muscles attached?

  30. The Muscular System- Wrap-ups 6. What is the role of exercise in muscle development? 7. What are hypertrophy and hypotonia? 8. What are anabolic steroids? What are the side effects of using anabolic steroids? 9. What are the four types of muscles based on shape? 10. How are muscles named (6 ways)?

  31. The Muscular System- Wrap-ups 11. Name the three general muscle types and where each may be found. 12. When does the muscle system develop and how does aging affect muscles? 13. What is fibromyalgia? Symptoms? Treatment? 14. What is DMD? Symptoms? Treatment? 15. What is MG? Symptoms? Treatment? 16. What is MPS? Symptoms? Treatment?

  32. The Muscular System- Wrap-ups Complete labs 19-23 Work on Muscle Poster Teams of four Due last day before Christmas Vacation