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Hydration and Nutrition. Martha Pronzati , ATC-NHLAT-GALAT. HYDRATION – NATA GUIDELINES. First and foremost, athletes should have unlimited access to fluids !

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hydration and nutrition

Hydration and Nutrition

Martha Pronzati, ATC-NHLAT-GALAT

hydration nata guidelines
  • First and foremost, athletes should have unlimited access to fluids!
  • To ensure proper pre-exercise hydration, the athlete should consume approximately 17-20 oz of water or a sports drink 2 to 3 hours before exercise and 7-10 oz of water or a sports drink 10 to 20 minutes before exercise.
  • During exercise, fluid replacement should be 7-10 oz of fluid every 10-20 minutes
hydration cont
Hydration Cont.
  • Post-exercise hydration should be completed within 2 hours.
  • Fluid should contain water to restore hydration status, carbohydrates to replenish glycogen stores, and electrolytes to speed rehydration. (i.e. Gatorade/Powerade)
  • Substances that should be limited include fructose (sugar) – which can cause gastro-intestinal distress. (i.e. Fastfood, sodas, sweet tea, etc)
  • Substances to be avoided completely include: caffeine, alcohol (which may increase urine output and reduce fluid retention), and carbonated beverages (which may reduce voluntary fluid intake due to stomach fullness). (which in turn, then causes or can further dehydration leading to cramps or need for medical attention)
why is proper hydration important
Why is proper hydration important?

ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles and all other cells.

sweat must evaporate off your body to remove the heat generated by your muscles.

poor hydration
Poor Hydration
  • Can lead to: poor concentration, decreased coordination, decrease endurance
  • Dehydration reduces the ability to sustain exercise for longer than a minute or two.
  • Any athlete who needs to train for skill development and fitness must be well hydrated
  • Am I hydrated:
  • You know you are well hydrated when:
  • Your urine is clear to pale yellow. If your urine is the color of apple juice, drink more water.
  • You urinate at least 4 times per day.
  • Cold water (40'P that's refrigerator temperature) is absorbed faster.
  • A mouthful from a water fountain equals only 1 ounce, if you swallow it! To get 1 cup of liquid, take 8 big swigs!
  • Use a half fruit juice/half water drink if no sports drinks are available
  • Drink 1/2 cup to 1 cup of cold water every 15 minutes during exercise to delay fatigue.
  • For every pound you have lost during exercise, drink 2 cups of fluid.
other ways to get more fluids
Other ways to get more fluids
  • 12 ounces calcium fortified orange juice=1 1/2 cups
  • Milk on cereal = 1 cup
  • 1 carton of skim milk at school lunch =1cup
  • One 32-ounce water bottle (athletes eating 3,000 calories per day need more) = 4-6cups


  • 11 to 14 cups o£ total fluid
  • Eat Breakfast!!!
  • "An improvement in nutrition upon rising and food choices at lunch may have a real, discernible benefit in athletic performance." -In Sports Nutrition, a guide for the professional. Dan Bernardot, Ph. D., RD
  • "Nothing makes a bigger difference to nutritional status than the wayan athlete eats most of the time. Eating correctly most of the time sets up an athlete so that eating the right meal before a meet and the right nourishment during the competition can make a difference. “- In Sports Nutrition, a guide for the professional, Dan Bernardot, Ph.D., RD
pre game pre workout meals
Pre-Game/Pre-Workout Meals
  • PRE-WORKOUT MEALS: These meals provide the athlete with a lasting source of energy that will extend through the full duration of practice or competition. A quality pre-workout meal must contain high amounts of essential nutrients without producing an upset stomach.
  • 1. Avoid foods that are high in fat because they slow digestible
  • 2. Relax before exercise. Increased arousal levels slow digestion
  • 3. Eat 2 -3hours prior to activity to allow a sufficient amount of time for digestion
  • 4. Enjoy a meal consisting of 250-1000 calories consisting of protein and mostly complex carbohydrates
  • 5. Avoid sugar intake prior to activity because it may cause a drastic dip in energy levels
post game workout meals
Post Game/Workout Meals
  • POST-WORKOUT MEALS: A carbohydrate-rich meal serves as the best means of refueling after strenuous exercise. Poor post-workout nutritional habits can contribute to a chronic state of fatigue and impaired performance. The following guidelines will contribute to increased recuperative capabilities.
  • 1. Eat a high carbohydrate meal approximately I hour after a hard training session. The muscles are most receptive to glycogen replacement during, this time interval. These replaced food stores provide essential energy for the next workout.
  • 2. Consume at least 200-400 calories of carbohydrates within a half hour after a workout.
  • 3. Incorporate fruits, vegetables and water into the post-workout diet. They will replace the valuable water and minerals lost through perspiration.
  • 4. Rest after training to enhance recovery
  • 5. Adequate amounts of sleep every night (no less than six hours).
  • 6. Remember to rehydrate; replace fluids lost during exercise.
food choices
Food Choices
  • FOOD CHOICES: Now that you know how to break up your meals and snacks, what foods should you eat to meet your quality calorie needs? Most Americans get 60% of their calories from simple sugars and fats. Fat and simple sugars do not aid in athletic performance.
  • Healthy foods are nutrient dense with a majority of the calories coming from complex carbohydrates. Avoid fried, refined, canned, or processed foods. These foods may be high in calories, but the majority of the calories are from fat. Suggestions for increasing your quality calorie intake are listed below.
  • Use complex carbohydrates as your major source of carbohydrates
  • Examples of Complex Carbohydrates include:
  • 1. Bread – Pizza crust
  • 2. Cereals (watch sugar content)
  • 3. Oatmeal
  • 4. Pancakes
  • 5. Waffles
  • 6. French toast
  • 7. Grits
  • 8. Pasta
  • 9. Rice
  • 10. Vegetables (potatoes, sweet potatoes, lima beans, peas, com, squash)
  • 11. Fruit and fruit juices (avoid juices containing refined sugar
Recommended Proteins

Cottage Cheese

Skim Milk


Lean Beef

Pork Chops

Canadian Bacon

Egg Whites/Egg Beaters

  • Chicken/Turkey
  • Cat fish
  • Cod
  • Halibut
  • Lobster
  • Salmon
  • Scallops
  • Shrimp
final facts
Final Facts
  • If you are looking for the least expensive and most efficient way to increase your recovery from exercise drink a pint of chocolate milk! (protein and Creatine supplements are not necessary.)
  • As an athlete, you need to eat foods that are low in fat.
  • Along with properly planned meals, athletes need fluids to achieve peak performance. The human body is composed of 75%
  • water and uses water for all metabolic functions. Once the body experiences a 3% weight loss due to dehydration, there is a negative effect on performance.