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Feeding and Managing Cows on High Grain Diets. Steve Paisley UW Extension Beef Specialist. Historical Example of Limit-Feeding Winter Rations. Limit-Feed?. Feed Hay?. CURSE. C ull the herd rigorously U se alternative feeds R e-sort, analyze, and R ation hay

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feeding and managing cows on high grain diets

Feeding and Managing Cows on High Grain Diets

Steve Paisley

UW Extension Beef Specialist

slide3

Limit-Feed?

Feed Hay?

curse
CURSE
  • Cull the herd rigorously
  • Use alternative feeds
  • Re-sort, analyze, and Ration hay
  • Substituting grain for our forages
  • Early weaning

Gerry Kuhl, KSU

energy value of corn vs hay
Energy Value of Corn vs Hay

Dry, shelled corn:

2.60 / bu = $.046 / lb = $93/ton As-fed

86% DM, 1.02 Mcals/lb

$.046 ÷ .86 = $.054 / lb DM

$.054 ÷ 1.02 Mcal/lb = $.053 / Mcal NEm

Average Hay typically = .55 Mcal / lb, so:

an equivalent hay price would have to be:

$.053 X .55 = $.029 / lb DM

$.029 X .88 = $.0256 / lb As-fed

= $51 / ton

relative price ton for native hay
Relative price/ton for native hay

Formula used: 1 lb of 12% native hay = .4835 lb corn + .1153 lb SBM

slide7
Dried Corn Gluten Feed, $/tonPrice comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.94 Mcal/lb) and CP (25%)

Formula used: 1 lb of CGF = .57 lb corn + .387 lb SBM

slide8
Distillers Dried Grains + Solubles, $/tonPrice comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.99 Mcal/lb) and CP (25%)

Formula used: 1 lb of DDGS = .629 lb corn + . 375 lb SBM

slide9
Wheat Midds, $/tonPrice comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.85 Mcal/lb) and CP (18.4%)

Formula used: 1 lb of Midds = .609 lb corn + .246 lb SBM

slide10
Beet Pulp, $/tonPrice comparison based on corn/SBM mix balanced for equal NEm (.81 Mcal/lb) and CP (11%): 25% Dry Matter

Formula used: (DM Basis) 1 lb of beet pulp = .709 lb corn + .091 lb SBM

alternative roughages
Alternative Roughages:
  • Stalks/Stover
  • Ammoniated straw
  • Sudan Hays
  • Low quality forages
limit feeding corn to gestating beef cows year 1
Limit-feeding corn to gestating beef cows, Year 1

Loerch, 1996

abMeans differ (P<.05) Hay $80/ton, Corn $2.00/bu Supp $150/ton

* 36% Protein supplement with 3.6% Ca and 1% Phos (As-fed)

** Trial was conducted from November through Mid-April

limit feeding corn to gestating beef cows year 2
Limit-feeding corn to gestating beef cows, Year 2

Loerch, 1996

abMeans differ (P<.05) Hay $80/ton, Corn $2.00/bu, Supp $150/ton

* 36% Supp. with 3.6% Ca, 1% Phos (As-fed) 60 g/lb Monensin

** Trial was conducted from November through Mid-April

limit feeding corn to gestating beef cows year 3
Limit-feeding corn to gestating beef cows, Year 3

Loerch, 1996

abMeans differ (P<.05) ; cdMeans differ (P<.08)

Hay $80/ton, Corn $2.00/bu, Supp $150/ton

* 36% Protein supplement with 3.6% Ca and 1% Phos (As-fed)

** Trial was conducted from November through Mid-April

whole shelled corn vs rolled in limit fed diets
Whole shelled corn vs rolled in limit-fed diets

Cattle were fed for 62 days (between calving and breeding)

Tjardes et al.1998

uw limit fed wintering diet
UW Limit-fed Wintering Diet

Control

High Fat

Millet Hay

10 lbs

10 lbs

Rolled Corn

14 lbs

11 lbs

Protein Supp.

.9 lbs

-

Fat Supp.

-

3.70 lbs

% CP

10.28

9.39

% TDN

75.36

75.15

slide18

UW Limit-fed Cow Condition

Control

High Fat

Initial wt, BCS

60 d prior to calving

1333 (5.08)

1333 (5.05)

Mid - weight, BCS

avg 19 d postpartum

1330 (5.49)

Breeding wt, BCS

avg 60 d postpartum

1274 (5.36)

calf performance uw study
Calf Performance, UW Study

aVigor score at calving: 1 = alert vigorous, active; 2 = alert, able to stand;

3 = lethargic, unable to stand; 4 = dead at birth.

bCalf rectal temperature taken within 24 h after birth.

uw estrous synchronization
UW Estrous Synchronization
  • 60 d Postpartum
  • EAZI-BREED CIDR
  • 1 Shot PGF2

Remove CIDR

PGF2 Injection

Insert

CIDR

CIDR

Heat Detect and Breed

Day 7

Day 13

Day 0

response to synchronization

All Cows

% Heat Detection

93.46

% 1st Service 30 d

67.32

% 1st Service 75 d

62.09

Response to Synchronization

(72.03%)

slide23

Occasionally, limiting intake

may be a good thing!!

what to expect
What to Expect
  • Aggressive behavior at the bunk
  • Consume ration in as little as 20 to 30 minutes
    • Lots of “free time” to pace, crib
    • Takes 1 to 2 weeks to “adapt”
    • Increased roughage may help
  • Variation in weight gains/losses?
    • Hay/concentrate ratio
    • Bunk Space?
herd management
Herd Management
  • Consider sorting herd into 2 - 3 groups:
    • Bred Yearlings
    • Young and Thin cows
    • Mature Cows in Good Condition
    • Consider limit-feeding just one group
  • Watch cattle closely
    • May not work for all cows
    • Monitor condition of cows and adjust accordingly
feed management
Feed Management
  • Work up to limit-fed diet slowly
    • Start with 3-4 lb grain plus free choice hay
    • Increase grain by no more than 1 lb/day
    • When grain level is reached, begin removing hay
  • Ionophores very beneficial
  • Consistent, accurate feeding
    • Good management essential
feed management1
Feed Management
  • Balance separately for gestation and lactation
  • High Calcium (feedlot) mineral
  • Vitamin A?
  • Whole shelled vs ground corn?
example limit fed wintering rations corn
Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: Corn

Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP

example limit fed wintering rations ddgs
Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: DDGS

Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP

example limit fed wintering rations beet pulp
Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: Beet Pulp

Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP

Beet Pulp - 25% Dry Matter

example limit fed wintering rations beet pulp ddgs
Example Limit-Fed Wintering Rations: Beet Pulp + DDGS

Prairie Hay - Meadow Brome Hay, 14% CP

Beet Pulp - 17% Dry Matter

additonal questions
Additonal Questions
  • Birth weights of calves
    • Birth weights appear to be slightly increased, but calving difficulty is not affected
  • Re-breeding
    • No reported effect on subsequent re-breeding rates
final thoughts
Final thoughts
  • Cattle will take at least 2 wks to adjust
  • Work cattle up slowly
  • Feed extra hay when daily feeding is late/missed
final thoughts1
Final thoughts
  • Consider limit-feeding only part of the herd
    • Sort cattle into groups
  • Balance rations separately for late gestation

and lactation

  • Safety of ration:
    • Long-stemmed vs ground hay
    • ionophore
    • processing and amount of grain