phd seminar series qualitative research methodology l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PhD Seminar Series Qualitative Research Methodology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
PhD Seminar Series Qualitative Research Methodology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 41

PhD Seminar Series Qualitative Research Methodology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 146 Views
  • Uploaded on

PhD Seminar Series Qualitative Research Methodology. Defining and conducting case-based research Analysing case study data Klas Eric Soderquist, DBA, Brunel University. ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΤΙΚΗΣ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗΣ & ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ. Seminar Outline. A Case of Case Study Research

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'PhD Seminar Series Qualitative Research Methodology' - kylar


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
phd seminar series qualitative research methodology
PhD Seminar SeriesQualitative Research Methodology

Defining and conducting case-based research

Analysing case study data

Klas Eric Soderquist, DBA, Brunel University

ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΟ ΠΑΝΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΩΝΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΙΟΙΚΗΤΙΚΗΣ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗΣ & ΤΕΧΝΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ

slide2

Seminar Outline

  • A Case of Case Study Research
  • Recalling the Process of Defining the Research Problem
  • Defining the Unit of Analysis
  • Research Strategy, Relation to Theory, Methodological Choice
  • Data Collection
    • Interviews, Direct observation, Participant observation
    • From research question to interview guide
  • Data analysis (case or other qualitative approaches)
    • Open coding
    • Axial coding
    • The paradigm model
    • Validity and Reliability

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide3

My Case of Case Study Research

Inside the Tier Model: Product Development Organisation

and Strategies in Automotive Expert Supplier Firms

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide4

Definition of the Research Problem

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide5

Overall

Research

Questions

My Real World Context

  • Background
    • The Lean Production Framework
    • The Tier Model
    • The Partnership Concept
    • Transaction Cost Theory, Strategic Collaboration Theory, Operational Coordination Theory
  • Research Problem
    • Supplier Perspective
    • Operational Perspective

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide6

Overall Research Questions

  • They tell you what you want to focus on and what you want to know
  • They set the rough boundaries of the research: you will study some issues in some context with some actors
  • They are oriented towards action and process
  • The way they are (implicitly) formulated will determine research strategy later on
  • They set the vision for the research project and helps focusing activities

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide7

MyOverall Research Questions

  • How does the emergence of new industrial principles take place in expert supplier firms?
  • What is the place and role of expert suppliers in the automotive supply chain?
  • What lean production techniques are used and how are they adopted for satisfying the needs of the organisation?
  • How in practice takes integrated component development place?
  • How are organisations and processes designed to support integration?

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide8

Research Objective

One can distinguish between mainly three objectives or purposes with a research project:

  • To explain the causality between different observations or the reasons behind a certain situation concerning the phenomenon
  • To explore a vague problem or a new area of research
  • To describe, i.e., observe and visualise the situation of certain phenomena

The research objective does not automatically define a quantitative or qualitative logic

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide9

Research Objective

The research questions implicitly determine the research objective, and together they indicate quantitative vs. qualitative research:

  • WHAT questions of descriptive nature in the sense “how much” or “how many” call for a quantitative approach
  • WHAT questions of explanatory or exploratory nature call for a qualitative approach
  • HOW questions and WHY questions call for a qualitative approach

Qualitative research is needed when we want to come to terms with the meaning, not the “right” or “wrong” with the phenomena under investigation

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide10

“Full“

Process

Model of

Methodological

Choice

slide11

Unit of Analysis – What is the Case?

  • It is the Research Object – or unit in the real world context that you will observe
  • It can be:
  • An individual,
  • A role
  • A group
  • A process
  • An organisational entity
  • An organisation
  • Or any other definable and observable unit

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide12

Unit of Analysis – Example

  • Units of analysis in change management research:
  • Change efforts (e.g., installing new technology, downsizing, a particular restructuring, effort to change corporate culture…)
  • Change events (e.g. a crises);
  • The leaders of change (i.e., the individuals that drive through "corporate revolutions" with research focus on their personal traits, leadership styles and leadership levers);
  • Sectors undergoing change (i.e., comparative studies of different business sectors in search of similarities and specificities basically in the content of change)
  • Employees facing change and acting in change processes.

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide13

My Unit of Analysis

  • Could be a component development project
  • Could be the supplier interface
  • Could be the product development project
  • I did chose the Product Development Process in each studied firm because studying the PDP would enable answering all the questions (at least in theory)

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide14

“Full“

Process

Model of

Methodological

Choice

slide15

Research Strategy

Five Basic Strategies:

  • Experiment
  • Survey
  • Archival Analysis
  • History
  • Case Study

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide16

Case Study Research Strategy

Selecting the Case Study Organization: Criterion Sampling

  • Purposive rather than random samples
  • Samples can evolve as research moves on
  • Identify theory driven criteria in order to frame the research
  • Inclusive or contradictory samples

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide17

Case Study Research Strategy

My Criterion Sampling

  • Case Study Organisations should:
  • Have a good record for internally generated innovation.
  • Innovation has a high profile in the organization.
  • Have established links with research laboratories.
  • Have an explicit strategy for R&D and R&D driven organizational development

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide18

“Full“

Process

Model of

Methodological

Choice

slide19

Theory Extension

Relation to Theory

Theory Development

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide20

Data collection and data

analysis methods, appropriate

for the chosen methodology

Methodological Choice

Methodological choice

Qualitative

Qualitative

Deductive Logic

Inductive Logic

Quantitative

Quantitative

Deductive Logic

Inductive Logic

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide21

Data Collection Methods

Case-Based Research

  • Participant Observation – longitudinal presence
  • The researcher is part of the organisation on a contractual basis and has a contextual professional role and reporting responsibility
  • Direct Observation – (longitudinal) presence
  • The researcher is present in the organisation as an external observer
  • Interviews – occasional visits (can be longitudinal)
  • Documentary Analysis - background info and event analysis

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide22

Data Collection

From Research Question to Interview Guide

  • The overall research questions starts broadly and are gradually narrowed by asking sub questions and sub-sub questions
  • Research questions should be asked «crude» to managers and experts in an exploratory phase: Pilot interviews or pilot case

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide23

Exploratory Data

(Real World)

Researcher‘s

Sub, sub-sub…

Research

Questions

Overall Research

Questions

Mental Processing

Personal Experience

(Real World)

Data Collection through Interviews

From Research Question to Interview Guide (I)

The process of generating more detailed questions

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide24

Data Collectionthrough Interviews

From Research Question to Interview Guide (II)

My Interview Guide (minor extract). Semi-structured, open ended

  • How are organisations and processes designed to support integration?
    • What coordination activities exist in the product development process?
      • When and how is manufacturing staff involved in new development projects?
      • What are the benefits of their involvement?
      • What are the drawbacks?
      • How is coordination with customers organised?
      • How is coordination with suppliers organised?
    • What communication structures exist in the product development process?
      • Who talks to who in the process?
      • What channels are used?
      • Frequency of communication between different players?
      • How does communication support coordination?

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide25

Data Collection through Interviews

Basic Interview Techniques

  • Not too active, not too passive - The guide serves as a tool for navigating the interviews
  • Use of the critical incident technique to start out the interviews or enter into new subjects.

It is efficient when managers have difficulties in articulating answers to specific questions and consists of asking the interviewee to describe specific events that have had a critical impact on the way a specific issue has been managed

  • Use re-launch questions:

- Could you tell me more about this?

- Could you specify further?

- What are you thinking about in particular?

It is important in such cases not to give any suggestions to interviewees

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide26

Between Collection and Analysis

Interview (or observation) Transcripts

  • For serious research, tape record interviews!
  • Always keep supportive notes
  • Proceed to immediate transcript
  • Transcript should reflect the interview at 100 percent
  • Ask for feed-back on transcripts
  • Fill in uncertainties with a second (phone) interview

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide27

Data Analysis / Coding

Basics

  • If we talk about case research, we will have at least multiple interviews, possibly a mix of interviews and field notes
  • Our analytical problem is that of analysing a mass of text
  • Analysis / Coding represents the operations by which data are:
    • Broken down
    • Conceptualized,
    • Put back together in new ways
  • The objective is to build theory from data – a “Grounded Theory” approach

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide28

Data Analysis / Coding

Open Coding (I)

  • Labelling events: Consists of placing conceptual labels on discrete happenings, events and instances in data

Data are broken down and conceptualized by taking apart an observation, a sentence, a paragraph and giving each separate incident, idea or event a name that represents a phenomenon. Incident after incident in the field notes are compared in order to give similar events the same name -conceptual label- and nuance and enrich each concept.

The process involves asking questions to the data so as to identify properties and dimensions of the incidents

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide29

Data Analysis / Coding

Open Coding (II)

  • Categorising: Consists of grouping conceptual labels into categories

Concepts that seem to pertain to the same phenomena are then regrouped -categorized- and given a name that should be more abstract than that given during labeling.

Categories have conceptual power because they are able to pull together around them groups of concepts.

Practically, categorising consists of going through all concepts and asking questions such as 'What is this concept about?' or 'Is this concept similar or different from the one before or after?'

In this way, categories are discovered when concepts are compared against one another, and concepts become characteristic components of a category - so called subcategories.

If a concept seems not to pertain to an already identified category, it is left aside and might become the entry to a new category as data analysis goes on.

  • Categorising can be bottom-up or top-down

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide30

Data Analysis / Coding

Axial Coding

  • Condensation of data, i.e., regrouping and linking categories to each other

Open coding fractures the data and allows the researcher to identify some categories, their properties and dimensions. Axial coding puts these data back together in new ways by making connections between categories.

  • The objective is to identify the core category (basically derived from the unit of analysis) and to logically relate other main categories to the core
  • The “Paradigm Model” structures the axial coding process

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide31

PHENOMENON

INTERVENING

CONDITIONS

CAUSAL CONDITIONS

CONTEXT

CONSEQUENCES

1. Identify the phenomenon to be studied (activity, business process...).

2. Identify the conditions of directive nature, influencing the phenomenon (driving forces, objectives...).

3. Specify the context in which the phenomenon takes place (organization, information....).

4. Identify the conditions of shaping nature that intervene in carrying out and managing the i phenomenon (reactions from stakeholders, cognitive processes, continuous improvement...).

5. Identify the outcomes related to the phenomenon - predictable/intended or not (competences, ressources, knowledge, know-how...).

The Paradigm

Model

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide32

Data Analysis / Coding

An Iterative

Process

My Research

Process

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide33

Data Analysis / Coding

My Open Coding

Sentence extracted from interview:

«We need performance measurements that enhance the value of inter-functional problem solving»

Category: Problem Solving

Sub categories: Objectives, Efficiency, Support Structures

Properties of “Efficiency”: Nature of Topic, Nature of Participation

Dimensions of “Nature of Topic”: Problems, Problems & Causes, Problems, Causes & possible le actions

Dimensions of “Nature of Participation”:

Participant Driven Management Driven

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide34

Data Analysis / Coding

My Axial Coding (I)

Core Category: Operational Design

The analysis of the category “Problem Solving” led to the identification of four distinctive levels of operational design

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide35

Data Analysis / Coding

My Axial Coding (II)

Causal Conditions: Means of Guidance

  • Guiding Visions, Performance Measurements

Context: Design Support Structures

  • Specifications, Information transmission support technology, technology scanning, knowledge repositories

Intervening Conditions

  • Learning dynamics, learning model

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide36

Data Analysis / Coding

My Axial Coding (II)

Causal Conditions: Means of Guidance

  • Guiding Visions, Performance Measurements

Context: Design Support Structures

  • Specifications, Information transmission support technology, technology scanning, knowledge repositories

Intervening Conditions

  • Learning dynamics, learning model

Consequences

  • Model of the process of building core capabilities

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide37

Data Analysis / Coding

Selective Coding and «Story»

  • The narrative about the core category must identify and define the basic content of the other categories
  • Narrative about each category, crossing the results of axial coding with research questions
  • Theoretical sampling: Strengthen weak relationships between categories inductively and integrate literature relevant for the results emerging
  • Specify action / interaction strategies for how the holistic model or theory operates

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide38

Example: The answer to one of the research questions emerges from the narratives about the core category, the context category and the intervening conditions category

How are organisations and processes designed to support integration?

slide39

Reliability and Validity (I)

  • Reliability consists of demonstrating that the operations of a study -such as the data collection procedures- can be repeated, with the same results
  • It is a question of documenting the research procedure
  • Reliability is ensured by keeping data in different forms:

- Directly taken field notes - from interviews and observations,

- Expanded typed notes made as soon as possible after the field work (this includes comments on problems and ideas that arise during each stage of the fieldwork and that will guide further research),

- A running record of analysis and interpretation (open coding and axial coding).

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide40

Reliability and Validity (II)

  • Construct validity means establishing correct operational measures for the concepts being studied. It is ensured through:

- The use of multiple sources of evidence,

- The establishment of a chain of evidence,

- Letting key informants review draft result reports

  • External validity means establishing the domain to which a study's findings can be generalized. It is ensured through the use of a replication logic “Analytical Generalisation”

- Relate case findings to existing or emerging bodies of literature, part of which will have been analysed in the literature section of the thesis

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist

slide41

Sources

  • Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., Lowe, A., (1991), Management Research, An Introduction, London: Sage Publications.
  • Dey, I. (1993), Qualitative Data Analysis. A User-Friendly Guide for Social Scientists, London: Routledge.
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M., (1994), Qualitative Data Analyses, An Expanded Sourcebook, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Pras, B. & Tarondeau, J-C., (1979), "Typologie de la recherche en gestion" (Typology of Management Research, in French), Enseignement et Gestion, Nouveau Serie no. 9, p. 5-11
  • Silverman, D., (1993), Interpreting Qualitative Data, Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction, London: Sage Publications.
  • Strauss, A., & Corbin, J., (1990), Basics of Qualitative Research, Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications
  • Van Maanen, J., Dabbs, J.M., Faulkner, R.R. (1982), Varieties of Qualitative Research. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage Publications
  • Van Maanen, J., (1983), Qualitative Methodology, Beverley Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Yin, R., K., (2003), Case Study Research, Design and Methods, 3rd edition, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

PhD Seminar Series. Qualitative Research MethodologyK.E. Soderquist