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Pine Beetle Investigation
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  1. Pine Beetle Investigation By: Sammie Keitlen and Brandon Johnson

  2. #1 Life Cycle of the Pine Beetle • 1 year life cycle • Late Summer: Adults leave dead trees -Seek out new trees -Beetles mate -Form a tunnel under the bark -Produce around 75 eggs • Winter: Larvae stay in the tree • Spring: Larvae feed on tree

  3. Life Cycle of the Lodgepole Pine Tree • Seed production begins at 5- 10 years • Cones remain on trees for 10-20 years • Older trees are less resistant to disease • Average age of Colorado Pines are 80- 200 years old

  4. #2 Phases of Population Growth for Mountain Pine Beetles • R- strategist • 2002- drought -incipient- then erupts -Epidemic • 2010- -the growth rate is decreasing • Endemic -British Columbia to southern California • Invasive species

  5. #3 Abiotic Limiting Factors of Mountain Pine Beetle • Chemicals • Fire • Temperatures -extreme heat under bark - 5 days of -30 degrees • Precipitation -wet summers

  6. Abiotic Limiting Factors of Lodgepole Pine Tree • Fire • Climate Change -drought -temperature • Disease • Over Crowding • Lack of Fire - trees grow old: susceptible to disease

  7. Biotic Limiting Factors of the Mountain Pine Beetle • Birds- Woodpeckers • Well- spaced healthy trees • Parasites • Larger insects • Tree resistance- “pitch outs” • Forest diversity- age, structure, species

  8. Biotic Limiting Factors of Lodgepole Pine Tree • Humans • Woodpeckers • Blue-Stain Fungi • Insects

  9. The Niche of Mountain Pine Beetle • Population control • Kill stressed and old trees -increases diversity • Helps renew the forest by succession • Source of food for some animals

  10. The Niche of Lodgepole Pine Trees • Provide habitats for mammals, insects, and birds • Pioneer Species after forest fires • Play an important role in succession • Source of food for animals

  11. The Effects that Pine Beetles have on Lodgepole Trees • Infect with Blue-stain fungi • Kill the tree • Tree produce “pitch outs”- attempt to drown/ flush the beetle out • Not necessarily harmful effect: - change diversity, age, and structure of forest • Epidemic Population growth- disastrous effect

  12. # 7 Signs and Symptoms of Effected Trees • Pine beetles leave large holes in bark of a tree • Patches of missing bark • Ten months after the infestation, the needles of infested pines will turn reddish-brown.

  13. #8 Colorado Forest Management The past few decades have had Warmer TemperaturesLow amount of rainfallThis creates a higher death rate for the treesPine Beetle populations grew because of high temperatures and low rainfall

  14. #9 Management of Colorado’s Forests • Colorado has synthesized the idea of having district managers for the forest locations in their county.  • President Theodore Roosevelt's decision to set aside vast tracts of western highland forests was in response to widespread exploitation by logging operations that began to sweep across the West in the late 1870s

  15. # 10 Climate and Management Practice effect on Beetle Populations • The temperature must be consistently be below -35 Celsius or -40 Celsius for several straight days to kill off large populations of the Mountain Pine Beetle. • Climate is warming- Pine Beetle Population will consistently grow • You can control some populations by burning, burying, chipping or removing infested logs

  16. #11 Importance of Forests – Pine Beetle Effect • If all the trees are dead from MPB, then tourism will be affected • Skiing, camping, hiking, biking, etc. • There will be a reduced amount of shelter for wildlife if trees are continually dying • Affecting other organisms • Lowering oxygen rates

  17. Resources Used • Fire Science Brief • Clean Water- Insect Outbreaks and Watersheds • The Influence of Previous Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Activity on the 1988 Yellowstone Fires • Challenges of a Bark Beetle Outbreak- What Are Land Managers Doing? • Mountain Pine Beetle • Environmental characteristics of mountain pine beetle infestation hot spots • Bark Beetles: Are Your Trees At Risk? • Manager’s Viewpoint • Western U.S. Forests Suffer Death By Degrees • http://plantwatch.fanweb.ca/plant-information/lodgepole-pine/lodgepole-pine-information • http://www.barkbeetles.org/mountain/fidl2.htm • http://utahcamping.blogspot.com/2009/07/utah-field-guide-lodgepole-pines-and.html