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GOV1008 MID-TERM REVIEW Introduction to Geographical Information Systems November 13, 2008. General Comment. Look at 2007 MT; exam usually a series of thought questions based on a real GIS application

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Gov1008 mid term review introduction to geographical information systems november 13 2008

GOV1008 MID-TERM REVIEW

Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

November 13, 2008


General comment
General Comment

  • Look at 2007 MT; exam usually a series of thought questions based on a real GIS application

  • Exam is usually NOT focused on performing operations but on displaying understanding of the underlying theory

  • Important to read/review relevant sections in the textbook and be familiar with where to find details on topics covered in course



Important concept 1
Important Concept - 1

  • Vector OR Raster?

  • Vector: discrete, object view, represents points, lines and areas

  • Raster: field view, grid with pixels

  • See Lecture 2 for advantages and disadvantages and examples of each

  • Measuring Earth: Ellipsoid & Datum

  • Ellipsoid: model of earth for use in GIS

  • Datum: glues the ellipsoid used to the geoid shape of the earth, required to maintain constant relationship between the two


Important concept 2
Important Concept - 2

  • Cartography: factors to consider…

  • Symbolization

  • Color use

  • Map components: scale, north arrow, legend, title, source…

  • Data Classification

  • Spatial aggregation

  • Think Intuitively!


Important concept 3
Important Concept - 3

  • Measuring Earth: Projections

  • Definition: the systematic transformation of points on the Earth’s surface to corresponding points on a plane surface

  • Types: conic, planar, cylindrical; conformal, equal area, azimuthal

  • Conformal property: shapes of small features are preserved, distortion is the same in all directions

  • Equal area property: shapes are distorted, but features have the correct area


Important concept 4
Important Concept - 4

  • GIS Software Architecture

  • Desktop

  • Client-server

  • Centralized: Desktop/Citrix & Server

Server GIS

Centralized GIS

-Deploy multi-user desktop

-Internet GIS

-Enterprise GIS Servers

Manage/deploy centrally, Low cost of ownership, Good for data exploitation


Important concept 5
Important Concept - 5

  • GIS Database Considerations

1 –User View

2 – Objects and Relationships

3 – Geographic Representation –vector vs. raster has implications for how the database is used

4 – Geographic Database Types – this involves matching the objects to be studied to specific data storage types

5 – Geographic Database Structure – assign a coordinate system to your data

6 – Database Schema – design the actual physical database schema


Important concept 6
Important Concept - 6

  • Spatial Data Analysis: Transformations

  • Buffers

  • Point in polygon

  • Overlay:Continuous & Discrete

  • Interpolation: IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted)

    Kriging, Density Estimation

  • Spatial Data Analysis: Geoprocessing

  • Clip, Append, Dissolve, Intersect, Union


Important concept 7
Important Concept - 7

  • Spatial Analysis

  • For example: centroid, dispersion, semivariograms, measures of spatial autocorrelation such as Moran‘s I and Local Moran‘s, optimization

  • ESDA: consider ecological fallacy and the Modifiable Unit Areal Problem (MAUP)!