Egypt Section 1 Have your interactive notebooks out and take as many notes as you need to. If you already have vocabulary done, than mark off the words that you have defined. This is a review for the test!
Section 1 Vocabulary • Nile River • Upper Egypt/Lower Egypt • Cataracts • Delta • Pharaoh • dynasty
Why was Egypt called the gift of the Nile? • How much of Egypt’s fertile farmland was located in the Nile delta? • Why was flooding important?
The Nile provided both water and fertile soil for farming. Over time scattered farms grew into villages and cities. Eventually, an Egyptian civilization developed.
How did the farmers use the Nile to grow their crops? • What sort of natural barriers did Egypt’s location provide?
The built irrigation systems out of canals • The West-desert, the East-more desert and the Red Sea, the North-Med. Sea and the South- cataracts
Because they were free from invaders, wealthy farmers became leaders. Finally, villages had come together to create two kingdoms, Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt.
Who was Egypt’s first pharaoh? • How did he rise to power??
Menes was a powerful leader in Upper Egypt. He wanted to unify both kingdoms so he had his army invade Lower Egypt and then he married a princess from LE. He combined the two crowns to prove unity.
Egypt Section 2 Vocabulary • Old Kingdom • Nobles • Afterlife • Mummies • Elite • Pyramids
How long did the Old Kingdom last? What responsibilities did the Pharaoh have that were beyond his control? How was society structured?
The Old Kingdom lasted about 500 years. • The pharaoh was responsible for making crops grow, making trade profitable, preventing wars.. • Pharaoh, Nobles, scribes and servants
The Egyptian Gods • Re or Amon-Re ~ the sun god • Osiris ~ the god of the underworld • Isis ~ the goddess of magic • Horus ~ a sky god • Thoth ~ god of wisdom • Geb ~ the Earth god
How did the Egyptians see the afterlife? • What was the Ka? • Why was it important to prevent decay?? • How did the rich and poor bury their dead?
They loved life and saw the afterlife as a happy place with healthy people • The Ka was a person’s life force • If a person’s body decayed then the Ka would not be able to recognize it and return to it when necessary • The rich were mummified while the poor were buried in shallow graves in the desert
Why were the pyramids so important? • What is the shape of the pyramid? • How large was the Great Pyramid’s base? • How did pyramid design change?
They believed that the pharaoh controlled everyone’s afterlife and their own fate depended on the pharaoh’s happiness. • Four triangle shaped walls • 13 acres • The edges were smooth instead of step-like.
Egypt Section 3 What caused the end of the Old Kingdom? What caused the end of the Middle Kingdom? Where were the Hyksos from?
The Old Kingdom- the pharaohs lost their power to the nobles • The Middle Kingdom- the nobles lost their power to the new pharaoh • Southwest Asia
Who was Hatshepsut?What did she accomplish?What did her stepson do after she died?
What was the job of a scribe?What did the Artisans, Artists and Architects do?Who made up Egypt’s population?
The job of a scribe was to keep records, accounts and religious books. They also didn’t pay taxes.Artisans-sculptors, builders, carpenters, jewelers. Artists-painters. Architects- designed templesFarmers and peasants
How did some people become slaves in Egypt?What rights did Egyptian women have??
Convicted criminals and prisoners of war made up the slave population.Women could work, own property, make contracts and divorce their husbands
Egypt Section 4 Take out your interactive notebooks and take as many notes as possible! This is on the TEST!
What is the name of the Egyptian writing system? • Hieroglyphics- there are more than 600 symbols. They could be written vertically or horizontally, from right to left or left to right. • This was one of the world’s first writing systems
Papyrus • Long lasting paperlike material made from reeds. • ..they use to carve in stone or on other hard materials. However, scribes would write on papyrus using brushes and ink • It is made by pressing layers of reeds together and pounding them into sheets.
Rosetta Stone • A huge, stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics. It was written in Greek and a form of Egyptian. • **A French soldier accidentally came across this stone.
Representation • Each symbol represented one or more sounds in the Egyptian language
Temples • Egyptians believed they were homes to the gods. • Sphinxes (imaginary creatures with bodies of lions and head of other animals/humans) lined a path leading to the entrance • On either side would be an obelisk, a tall four sided pillar that was pointed on top.
Temples • The most sacred part of the temple was the sanctuary located at the far end of the temple • The Temple of Karnak is only one of Egypt’s great temples
Egyptian Art • Egyptian artistry was very detailed and often missed by the public. Detailed work covered the walls of temples and tombs. Kings, priest and important people were the only ones to enter these areas. Paintings were of historical events like the crowning of a new king or the founding of a temple or a religious ritual.