Chapter 3 Section 2The Beliefs of IslamChapter 4 Sections 2Muslims' Daily Life Big Idea
California Standards Social Studies Standard 7.2.2: Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity . Paraphrase: • SS 7.2.2: Learn about the origins of Islam and the connection with other religions.
California Standards Social Studies Standard 7.2.3: Explain the significance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims’ daily life. Paraphrase: • SS 7.2.3: Explain the importance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah
California Standards Reading Comprehension 2.3: Structural Features of Informational Materials: analyze text that uses cause-and-effect organizational pattern. Paraphrase • RC 2.3: Analyze text that uses cause-and-effect organizational patterns.
Input The Qur’an • For Muslims’, the Qur’an is the word of God. • A record of the revelations to Muhammad over 22 years. • The Muslim holy book. The Sunnah • Refers to the words and actions of Muhammad himself. • Provides Muslims’ with guidelines for living a proper life. • Helps interpret difficult parts of the Qur’an
Input • Qur’an: The Muslim holy book. • mosque: a Muslim house of worship. • alms: goods or money given to the poor and needy. • fasting: not eating or drinking for a period of time. • pilgrimage: a journey to a sacred place or shrine. • Sunnis: the major Islamic sect. • Jihad: holy struggle. (striving hard in God’s cause) • Sharia: the Islamic code. • imam: an Islamic leader • minaret: a tower where a muezzin would call people to prayer. • madrasa: a religious school.
Input: The Qua'ran • Qur’an was compiled as a book in 651, 19 years after Muhammad’s death • Consists of 114 chapters • Each chapters is made up of versus • Versus discuss: • The nature of God • Creation • The human soul • Moral • Legal issues • Family issues Muslims believe that because the Qur’an is the word of God, it must be studied in its original language.
Input: The Sunnah • Refers to the words and actions to Muhammad himself. • Provides guidelines for living a proper life. • Helps interpret the difficult parts of the Qua’ran • Based on accounts from people who knew Muhammad. • Many passages deal with Islamic law.
Input: The Five Pillars Muslims have five key religious duties. Declaration of faith -“ There is no God but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God.” Prayer – Muslims are expected to pray five times a day. Almsgiving – It is the duty of all Muslims to share their wealth with the less fortunate. Fasting – During Ramadan Muslims eat no food between sunrise and sunset. Pilgrimage – (hajj) Muslims must make a pilgrimage to the holy cit of Islam (Mecca) once in their lives.
Input: Islamic Law • Muhammad taught that there was no difference between everyday life and religious life. • The laws are collected in the Sharia. • The Sharia was based on the Qua’ran and Sunnah • The Sharia detailed rules of personal conduct in Muslim society. • The rules within the Sharia included the Five Pillars of Islam; and other things that Muslims should not do such as gamble, steal, or eat pork. • The Sharia also included rules for resolving family issues an for doing business.
Input: Muslim Society • Social Classes • Classes did exist within the Muslim society. • Early Islamic society was divided into 4 classes; Arabs, non-Arabs, Jews and Christians, and slaves • Men and Women • Men expected to support the family and represent them in the world. • Women generally stayed at home. • Women had fewer rights than men • Marriages were arranged by families.
Input: Muslim Society • Education • Strong religious bases • Students began their education by studying the Qua’ran • Later on students were able to move onto other studies such as law, philosophy, mathematics, and history. • The Islamic world produced many fine writers, scholars, and artist.
Input: Summary • Islam’s most sacred texts, the Qur’an and the Sunnah, are believed to contain the word of God and the practices of Muhammad. The core beliefs of Islam include; one God, the individual soul, and the after life. All Muslims have religious duties called the Five Pillars. They must declare that there is only one God, prayer, almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage. Islamic law or the Sharia, was developed from the Qua’ran and the Sunnah. It detailed rules for personal conduct in the Muslim society. Social classes, gender roles, and education gave order to Islamic society.
Input • Social Studies Standard 7.2.2 and Reading Comprehension Standard 2.3: • Effect: Muslims are divided into two main groups the Sunnis and the Shiites. • Cause: Muhammad dies and both groups question his successor. • Cause: Sunnis believe that the successor should be a leader in the Muslim society, and the Shiites believe that the successor should be a direct descendant of Muhammad. • Cause: The Sunnis supported Abu Bakr as Muhammad’s successor • Cause: The Shiites supported Muhammad’s cousin Ali ibn Abu Talib as the successor.
Input • Sunnis • The major Islamic sect • Make up about 85% of all Muslims • View a caliph as a leader, not a religious authority • Believe that the caliph should be chosen by leaders in the Muslim community • Shiites • The largest minority Islamic sect • Believe that only Muhammad’s direct descendants should become a caliph • Felt Muhammad’s descendants were inspired by God.
Input • Foundation of the Muslim Life • Declaration of Faith • Prayer • Almsgiving • Fasting • Pilgramage
Modeling • What are the two main groups of Islam? • Identify the two main sources of Islamic thoughts. • What influence did the Qua’ran and the Sunnah have on daily life in the Islamic world? • What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
Check forUnderstanding • How often does the Five Pillars of Islam say that Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Mecca? At least once in their lifetime.
Check forUnderstanding • What was one cause of The Hijra? Many different answers!
Guided Practice • Answer #1 and 2 Independent Practice • Finish #3-8 on the worksheet.