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Chapter 2 Section 2 –Necessities of Life

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Chapter 2 Section 2 –Necessities of Life. 4 Necessities of Life. Water (Most chemical reactions for “metabolism” – all organisms activities, including getting energy from food, growing. etc – requires water. May get from food.)

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4 necessities of life
4 Necessities of Life
  • Water (Most chemical reactions for “metabolism” – all organisms activities, including getting energy from food, growing. etc – requires water. May get from food.)
  • Air (Need for chemical process to get energy from food. Some organisms (anaerobic) do not need air; some types of bacteria are examples.)
  • Shelter (Actually means having a place to live with access to all needs.)
  • Food (Need to have energy and materials to carry out life processes.)

Organisms often have to compete for food, water, shelter or other necessities.

making vs taking food
“Making” vs. “Taking” Food
  • Producers: Make their own (produce) food via


  • Consumers: Must eat other (consume) organisms to get food
  • Types of Consumers:Herbivores (eat producers; ex: zebra)

Carnivores (eat consumers; ex: lion)Omnivores (eat both; ex: brown bear)Detritivores (eat dead organisms; ex: vulture)Decomposers (detritivores that break down complex molecules in dead tissue/ wastes into simpler molecules; ex: mushrooms)

putting it all together
Putting It All Together
  • All organisms need to breakdown food to get/use nutrients.
  • Nutrients are made of molecules (substance made of >2 atoms).
  • Organisms’ molecules mostly made from 6 elements:carbon / hydrogen / nitrogen / oxygen / phosphorus / sulfur
  • Elements combine to make:proteins/ carbohydrates / lipids / ATP / nucleic acids
  • Necessary for almost all life processes of cell
  • Made of amino acids (smaller molecules)
  • Many functions:
      • Some form structures (hair, spider webs)
      • Some help cells do jobs ( hemoglobin delivers oxygen thru body)
      • Some are enzymes (speed chemical reactions)
  • Needed to build and repair the body
carbohydrates carbs
Carbohydrates (Carbs)
  • Made of sugars
  • Provide and store energy
  • Simple Carbs
      • Made from 1 sugar or just a few sugar molecules
      • Examples: table sugars and fructose (sugar in fruit)
      • More common than complex carbs
  • Complex Carbs
      • Made from 100’s of sugar molecules which are linked
      • Example: potato starch
  • Molecules that cannot mix with water
  • Have many jobs
  • Some store energy
      • Fats - animals
      • Oils – plants
  • Phospholipids
      • Make cell membranes
      • Pair up; “heads” attracted to water, and “tails” avoid water
  • Molecules called Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Job: major energy carrying molecule of cells
  • Energy from carbs or lipids are transformed to ATP to provide fuel
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Molecules that carry directions for how to make proteins
  • Made of smaller molecules called nucleotides
  • Sequence stores information
  • DNA is an example of a nucleic acid which directs making proteins
additional information
Additional Information
  • For additional information…especially chemistry…go to http:\\ . User name: minerva13 password: minervaThen visit the visual concepts for Ch 2 Section2