failed peace n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Failed Peace PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Failed Peace

play fullscreen
1 / 13
Download Presentation

Failed Peace - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

kueng
96 Views
Download Presentation

Failed Peace

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Failed Peace

  2. Differences over war reparations - London Schedule of Payment April 1921 (initial sum of 50 bn. Mark gold) British efforts to bring about economic revival - Genoa vs. Rapollo conference April 1922 France’s insecurity from offense to defense - Ruhr occupation July 1923 - Little Entente (B-1920, P-1921, Cz- 1924) - Passive resistance to fulfillment, but Mark collapses so does the French franc - Dawes Committee April 1924, modest installments, loans, occupation of Ruhr ends - Maginot line 1928 weakens Little Entente

  3. Locarno October 1925 - Aristide Briand, Austen Chamberlain, Gustav Stresemann - Nobel Peace Prize - Briand proposes establishment of a “United States of Europe” with a customs union - Germany enters the League of Nations 1926

  4. Locarno Treaty 1.French-German, Belgian-German borders guaranteed by Britain, Rhineland demilitarized 2.Borders with eastern Europe to be settled through negotiations and arbitration 3.Mutual Assistance agreements between France, Poland and Czechoslovakia.

  5. Post-Locarno - Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 outlaws war but no instrument to enforce - Death of Stressman 1929 - Treaty of neutrality between Germany and the Soviet Union - Young report and Dawes Committee redues and fixes date for reparations as 1988 - Rhineland occupation ends in 1930

  6. Versailles undermined 1. Locarno boundaries in East left to contestation 2. Reparations replaced with Dawes Plan, get Germany back on its feet to get it to pay reparations 3. Rhineland evacuated 5 years early 4. Geo-strategy creates weak states in the East “democratic peace” does not work 5. “democratic peace” does not work

  7. Collapse of prosperity 1929-1934 - Locarno brings some economic revival - accompanied by debts from US but no imports - “Black Thursday” Oct. 1929, world trade contracts - recovery stops, investors flee Germany, poverty follows - attempts at int’l action fail Feb. 1933 Reichstag burned, Nazis March elections receive 44 % of the votes enough for Enabling Act (all freedoms suspended) October 1933 leaves the League of Nations and Disarmament Conference Plebiscite approves Hitler’s actions 96.3 % and becomes Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor

  8. German revisionist policy 1. Equal rights for Germany and abolish Versailles 2. Union of all Germans 3. Demand land and territory for the nourishment of our people (Lebensraum) 4. Abrogates treaty obligations and introduces conscription in March 1935 5. Rearmament – Rhineland remilitarized March 1936, Luftwaffe

  9. Italian belligerence 1. Mussolini comes to power 1922 2. Italian bombardment of Corfu in 1923 3. Territorial demands on Dalmatia 4. Verbal aggressions towards Turkey, Abyssinia, Yugoslavia, France 5. Mare nostrum 6. Leaves Stressa Front of April 1835 and invades Abyssinia October 1935

  10. Run-up to World War II • Spanish civil war July 1934 (3 years) Italy and Germany violate the Non-Intervention Pact of Sept. 1936. • Anti-Comintern Pact, Germany-Japan 1936, joined by Italy Nov. 1937 after leaving the LN • Austria-Italy fear German supremacy • October 1936 Italo-German cooperation protocols including on Spain

  11. Run-up to World War II • British policy of “general settlement” to bring about appeasement, overwhelmed by German armament - search for a non-aggression pact to replace Locarno - assure CEE countries - return Germany to LN and disarmament conferences -economic weakness, reluctance to tax • Weak governments in France absence of political will, efforts to get closer to the Soviet Union, pact of May 1935. • Sino-Japanese war 1937, LN “collective security” fails • Dec. 1937 Japan attacks US/British ships – nothing happens • Anchluss March 1938 – Britain in Dec. 1937 had thought closer relations between Germany and Austria inevitable • Munich conference September 1938