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CHAPTER 10. Agriculture, Biotechnology , and the Future of Food. QUIZ: + 10PTS FOR CLASS GRADE. RAW %’s 91 82 82 73 73 64 64 64 64 64 2008 Exam: 73-87% (M/C) ----  39% “4”, 61% “5” 60-72% ------ 5% “2”, 33% “3”, 59% “4”. QUIZ. GRADED PER COLLEGE BOARD KEY KEY POSTED

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chapter 10

CHAPTER 10

Agriculture, Biotechnology, and the Future of Food

quiz 10pts for class grade
QUIZ: + 10PTS FOR CLASS GRADE
  • RAW %’s
  • 91
  • 82
  • 82
  • 73
  • 73
  • 64
  • 64
  • 64
  • 64
  • 64
  • 2008 Exam: 73-87% (M/C) ---- 39% “4”, 61% “5”
  • 60-72% ------ 5% “2”, 33% “3”, 59% “4”
slide3
QUIZ
  • GRADED PER COLLEGE BOARD KEY
  • KEY POSTED
  • PLEASE TAKE HOME, EXAMINE YOUR RESPONSES, COMPARE AGAINST KEY…….THEN SPEAK WITH ME
plan for remaining content
Plan for remaining content
  • Chapter 10: ‘Biotech’: THIS WEEK
  • Chapter 12: ‘Forestry’: THIS WEEK
  • Chapter 13: “The Urban Environment: Creating Livable and Sustainable Cities”: THIS WEEK
  • Chapter 23: “Minerals and Mining” WEEK MAR 24
  • Chapter 19: “Fossil Fuels, Their Impacts, and Energy Conservation”: WEEK MAR 24
  • Chapter 20: “Conventional Energy Alternatives”: WEEK MAR 24
  • Chapter 21: “New Renewable Energy Alternatives”: WEEK MAR 31
  • Chapter 22: “Managing our Waste”: WEEK MAR 31
  • Chapter 14: “Environmental Health and Toxicology”: WEEK MAR 31
  • Chapter 18: “Global Climate Change: WEEK MAR 31
  • STUDY PACKET FOR PESACH
plan for remaining content1
Plan for remaining content
  • Chapter 10: ‘Biotech’: THIS WEEK
  • Chapter 12: ‘Forestry’: THIS WEEK
  • Chapter 13: “The Urban Environment: Creating Livable and Sustainable Cities”: THIS WEEK
  • Chapter 23: “Minerals and Mining” WEEK MAR 24
  • Chapter 19: “Fossil Fuels, Their Impacts, and Energy Conservation”: WEEK MAR 24
  • Chapter 20: “Conventional Energy Alternatives”: WEEK MAR 24
  • Chapter 21: “New Renewable Energy Alternatives”: WEEK MAR 31
  • Chapter 22: “Managing our Waste”: WEEK MAR 31
  • Chapter 14: “Environmental Health and Toxicology”: WEEK MAR 31
  • Chapter 18: “Global Climate Change: WEEK MAR 31
  • STUDY PACKET FOR PESACH
  • READ AHEAD
  • HOLD QUESTIONS
  • ON-TOPIC QUESTIONS
big picture
BIG PICTURE
  • WE GROW ALL OUR FOOD
corn wheat
CORN, WHEAT
  • CORN:
  • 80 million acres U.S.
  • 314 million metric tons, U.S. (2011/2012)
    • World: 886 million MTs
  • WHEAT:
  • 54.4 million MTs, U.S.
    • World: 697 million MTs
  • 1 metric ton = 1,000 kg = 2,200 lbs
pesticides
PESTICIDES
  • Continued application of a pesticide favors those individuals with natural resistance
  • Farmers rotate pesticides
  • Great ecological burden!
    • Runoff to streams, lakes
    • Aquatic life!
    • Biomagnification up the food chain
    • Human health?!
    • Proven carcinogenic potential
organochlorine pesticides ocps 14 toxicology
ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCPs) (#14: toxicology)
  • DDT!
  • Second Generation OCPs: Dieldrin, aldrin, toxaphene, chlordane
  • Banned in 1970s
  • “POPs”
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • Lipophilic (hydrophobic)
slide18
OCPs
  • Dieldrin
    • Parksinson;’s
    • Breast cancer
  • Aldrin
    • LD50 = 39-60 mg/kg (ppm) (oral, rat)
    • LC50 = 0.006 to 0.01 mg/L (ppm) (trout, bluegill)
  • Toxaphene
  • Chlordane
ld50 lc50
LD50, LC50
  • The LD50 is the dose of chemical resulting in 50 percent mortality of animal test subjects per a standardized timeframe and administration protocol.
    • Units: milligrams chemical per kilogram body weight (mg/kg; ppm)
  • The LC50 is the concentration of chemical resulting in 50 percent mortality of animal test subjects.
    • Units: Water: milligrams chemical per liter aq solution (mg/L; ppm)
    • Air: milligrams chemical per cubic meter air (mg/m3) (ppb)
better modern pesticides herbicides
BETTER MODERN PESTICIDES, HERBICIDES
  • Less persistent in environment
    • Shorter surface soil “halflifes”
    • More water soluble
      • Disperse better
herbicides
HERBICIDES

Monsanto’s Roundup! (glyphosphate)

2007: Over 80,000 tons applied in U.S.

roundup
ROUNDUP
  • Inhibits an enzyme (EPSP synthase) controlling the synthesis of the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine
  • Very specific for EPSP enzyme….protein…AA sequence at “active site”
monsanto roundup ready crops
monsanto“roundup ready” crops
  • the engineering of transgenic crops
  • resistant to glyphosate
  • Farmer may douse RR crops with Roundup to kill all weeds
  • Roundup Ready plants carry the gene coding for a glyphosate-insensitive form of this enzyme, obtained from a bacterial strain
  • confers crop resistance to glyphosate.
the controversy
THE CONTROVERSY
  • Monsanto's "Superweeds" Gallop Through Midwest
  • “Roundup Ready crops, meet Roundup-defying weeds.”
    • http://www.motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2011/07/monsanto-superweeds-roundup:
the controversy1
the controversy
  • “The Missing Monarchs”
    • http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2014/01/monarch_butterfly_decline_monsanto_s_roundup_is_killing_milkweed.html
the controversy forbes
the controversy: forbes

http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonentine/2012/09/20/scientists-savage-study-purportedly-showing-health-dangers-of-monsantos-genetically-modified-corn/

the controversy2
the controversy
  • http://vimeo.com/80821016
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omtYlsG1P5U
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3OedIuaZto
  • http://www.policymic.com/articles/68515/one-thing-everyone-s-missing-about-gmo-foods
http www policymic com articles 68515 one thing everyone s missing about gmo foods
http://www.policymic.com/articles/68515/one-thing-everyone-s-missing-about-gmo-foodshttp://www.policymic.com/articles/68515/one-thing-everyone-s-missing-about-gmo-foods
  • “The scary thing about genetically modified organisms is that they have the potential to reduce the already limited amount of genetic diversity in individual crops to a miscroscopic level. If a small number of strains of a GMO (genetically modified organism) became dominant in agriculture, it would seriously imperil our food supply — a single disease could wipe out an entire food group. Humans cannot possibly anticipate every threat, so it's important to limit the spread of genetically modified foods. Given the importance of genetic diversity, genetically modified crops should only be used on a limited basis to address specific problem.”
labeling
Labeling
  • U.S. one of very few nations NOT to require GMO labeling on foods/beverages.
slide33

Between 70 percent and 80 percent of the food consumed in the US contains ingredients that have been genetically modified, according to the Grocery Manufacturers Association, in Washington.

green revolution
GREEN REVOLUTION
  • MID-TO-LATE 20th Century
  • Use of science to improve ag yields
integrated pest management
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
  • TAKE BEST PRACTICES
  • BIOCONTROL
  • JUDICIOUS USE OF CHEMS
  • CLOSE MONITORING OF POPULATIONS
  • CROP ROTATION
  • TRANSGENCI CROPS
  • ALTERNATIVE TILLING METHODS
  • PHYSICAL PEST REMOVAL
integrated pest management a model for sustainable energy
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: A MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY?!
  • TAKE BEST PRACTICES
  • BIOCONTROL
  • JUDICIOUS USE OF CHEMS
  • CLOSE MONITORING OF POPULATIONS
  • CROP ROTATION
  • TRANSGENCI CROPS
  • ALTERNATIVE TILLING METHODS
  • PHYSICAL PEST REMOVAL
colony colapse disorder
COLONY COLAPSE DISORDER!
  • ONE-THIRD OF ALL HONEYBEES GONE?!
  • HONEYBEES ----- $15 BILLION IN SERVICES
aquaculture
AQUACULTURE
  • ONE SOLUTION TO OVERFISHING
  • DOWNSIDES
    • Increased disease rate
    • Use of antibiotics
    • Wastes
sustainable ag
Sustainable ag
  • “Does not deplete soils faster than they form.”
  • Farming, ranching that does not reduce the amount of healthy soil, clean water, and genetic diversity essential to LONG-TERM crop and livestock production.