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Section 2. RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION 1790’s. II.RADICAL REVOLUTION AND REACTION The revolution became more radical because of internal divisions and because of fear of foreign invasion. A. the Move to Radicalism

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The revolution became more radical because of internal divisions and because of fear of foreign invasion.

A. the Move to Radicalism

Unrest was fueled by continuing food shortages, military setbacks and rumors of royalist conspiracies. Rumors spread that imprisoned nobles were meeting to defeat revolution. New leaders of the people appeared like Jean Paul Marat.

1. The First Republic

September 1782, newly elected National Convention began

to meet. Drafted new constitution which created the

French Republic.

2. The Fate of the King
  • Many new political clubs were organized like the Girondins. (juh RAHN duhns)Wanted to keep king alive. They were supported by the sans-culottes.
  • The Jacobins felt the king needed to be executed. The Mountain represented the interests of radicals in Paris The king was beheaded on the guillotine.

 These were the 2 dissenting groups of the National Convention.

3. Crises and Responses
  • After king executed a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and Dutch Republic took up arms against France.
  • Confronted with domestic uprising and external threats, the National Convention gave the Committee of Public Safety board powers.
  • This was dominated by MAXIMILEIN ROBESPIERRE.
1. Crushing Rebellion
  • Committee adopted policies that became known as the Reign of Terror.
  • Revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute counter revolutionaries and traitors.
  • Almost 40,000 people were killed including Marie Antonette.
  • Revolutionary armies were set up to bring rebellious cities under control.
  • Eventually grapeshot(a cluster of small iron balls) replaced the guillotine. Shot condemned into open graves.
  • In western France revolutionary armies were brutal in defeating rebels. Violence was common, like in Nantes, where victims were executed by sunken barges in the river. People from all classes were killed during the terror.
  • This was done to create REPUBLIC OF VIRTUE. (a democratic republic composed of good citizens.)
2. The Republic of Virtue
  • Other steps to control and shape society: Woman wore long dresses, “citizen” became the title, good citizens would be formed by good education.
  • Abolished slavery in French Colonies. Tried to control the prices of essential goods.
  • The Convention pursued a policy of de-Christianization. Withdrew saints, changed Notre Dame’s name.

C. A Nation of Arms

  • As foreign troops gathered on its borders the revolutions seemed to be in danger.
  • Rise of the Revolutionary Army
  • New French government raised a huge army. Was created by a people’s government. Its wars were people’s wars.
2 end of the terror
2. End of the Terror
  • End of summer, 1794, France had largely defeated their foreign foes.
  • Robespierre was obsessed with ridding France of all the corrupt elements. He was eventually Guillotined.
  • The Jacobins lost power and more moderate middle class leaders took control.
d the directory
D. The Directory
  • The Directory faced both conservatives and radicals. Conservatives-bring back monarchy, radicals-give us another Robespierre.
  • National Convention moved in more conservative direction:
  • a. Restricted the power of the committee of public safety.
  • b. churches were allowed to reopen.
  • c. new constitution was created. Constitution of 1795, set up two legislative houses. Council of 500, and the council of elders. Members chosen by electors (qualified voter). The executive was a committee of five called the DIRECTORY. Became known most for corruption. In 1799, the popular Napoleon Bonaparte toppled the Directory in a COUP D’ETAT
section 2 review
Section 2 Review
  • Sudden overthrow of a government
  • Coup d’etat
  • The Reign of Terror set up revolutionary courts to prosecute who?
  • Counter revolutionaries
  • The two dissenting groups within the National Convention were?
  • Girondins and the Mountain
section 2 review1
Section 2 Review
  • Minister of Justice for the Paris Commune
  • Georgas Danton
  • Dissenting groups were called what?
  • Factions
  • Upper legislative house under the Constitution of 1795
  • Council of Elders
  • Individuals qualified to vote
  • electors
section 2 review2
Section 2 Review
  • The Committee of Public Safety originally implemented the Reign of Terror to defend France against what?
  • Foreign armies
  • The Directory was eventually toppled by who?
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • During its rule, the government of the Directory was opposed by what groups?
  • Conservatives and radicals