Maine Cohort for Customized Learning Leading the development, implementation, and promotion of customized learning. Curriculum Training February, 2014 Linda Laughlin: email@example.com
Welcome & Agenda • Review the Agenda for the Day • Outcomes: Participants will • Understand the process that was used to develop the MCCL Model of Curriculum • Understand each of the three parts of the model and the concepts of guaranteed & viable • Understand the parts of the curriculum & how pathways help guide pacing and provide for anytime, anywhere learning
STRATEGIC DIRECTION & ALIGNMENT Curriculum Instruction Assessment Reporting Research-Based Best Practices A Common Instructional Language (Framework) “The Art & Science of Teaching” Learning Opportunities Tied to Learning Goals Flexible Options Formative Assessment Practices Inform Instruction Evidence of Proficiency Formative SCORES Guaranteed & Viable Measurement Topics, Scales, & Learning Goals Content, Reasoning Processes, Habits of Mind Provide Learners with Feedback Specific to Learning Goals Electronic Resources Help Track Student Progress Our Guiding Principles & Core Values Our Vision, Mission, Learner Outcomes The Structure or Delivery System The Industrial Age Assembly-Line LEADERSHIP
Curriculum: tells you what learners need to learn. • What is it you want learners to know & be able to do (KNOWLEDGE)? What type of knowledge is it? • What is the level of learning (REASONING) you want learners to demonstrate with this knowledge? 1 Instruction: is about what strategies you will use to make sure they learn. • What TEACHING STRATEGIES will you use to ensure learners are learning (content, reasoning processes & habits of mind. 2 Assessment: is about the evidence you see that indicates that they have learned… • What is the EVIDENCE you are looking for to indicate that they have reached proficiency? 3
The Design of the Curriculum Allows For: • Multiple Pathways • Combination of Learning Opportunities • Anytime, Anywhere Learning • Student Choice • Outside Learning Opportunities
“How do I……..????” “How do we……????” Well….how DO we…..? Problem Solving Invention Reasoning Growth Mindset “We will go as far as we can see….”
WHAT WORKS IN SCHOOLS Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum Clear Goals and Effective Feedback
John Hattie (reviewed 7,827 studies on learning and instruction) Research on Feedback….. Conclusion… “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops’ of feedback.” …reported that providing students with specific information about their standing in terms of particular objectives increased their achievement SIGNIFICANTLY!!!!
Setting specific goals for student achievement and then tracking progress regarding those goals is one of the most powerful actions a teacher, school, or district can take. Marzano on: Setting Specific Goals + Tracking Progress
LEARNING GOALS vs ACTIVITIES/ASSIGNMENTS
Activities/Assignments Today Read Chapter 2 in .. Finish Adverb assignment… Work on myth.. 3
Learning Goals Understands common themes exist in literature across genre. Is skilled at addition & substraction of decimals up to thousandth place.
RSU 18 Curriculum Model Using these critical thinking skills with this knowledge Reasoning Processes Using Knowledge: Decision Making, Problem Solving, Invention, Experimental Inquiry, Investigation, & Systems Analysis Analyzing Knowledge: Comparing, Classifying, Analogical Thinking, Analyzing Perspectives, Constructing Support, Analyzing Errors, Deductive & Inductive Reasoning Comprehending Knowledge: Symbolizing & Integrating Retrieving Knowledge: Recognizing, Recalling, & Executing Content Knowledge English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science, World Languages, Industrial Technology, Career Development, Health, Physical Education, Visual & Performing Arts, & Technology Education to practice getting better at being a reflective, & self directed learner, & a collaborative worker Reflective Learner: (Understanding Oneself): Understanding One’s Learning Style, Cultivating Creativity & Imagination, Maintaining a Growth Mindset, Responding Appropriately to Feedback Self-Directed Learner: (Improving Oneself): Meeting Quality Standards, Persevering, Setting & Monitoring Goals, Managing Impulsivity Collaborative Worker: (Working With Others): Working Toward Team Goals, Listening With Understanding/Empathy, Seeking To Be Understood, & Seeking to Resolve Conflicts
Complex Reasoning Content Knowledge Life-Long Habits of Mind MODEL OF CURRICULUM Measurement Topics, Scales & Learning Goals
THIS WORK IS NOT ABOUT: • Identifying • WHO is going to teach it • WHEN it is going to be taught • WHERE it is going to be taught • HOW it is going to be taught
THIS WORK IS ABOUT: • Identifying • WHATis the essential knowledge • WHATis the scope or progression of that knowledge • WHATare the proficiency levels for that knowledge • WHATlevel of processing (learning) do we want for that knowledge • WHATare various ways students could demonstrate that knowledge
Levels of Curriculum Design (Unpacking) Making Standards Useful National/State Level: Common Core, Next Gen. Science, etc. District Level: Measurement Topics in Scoring Scale Format Classroom Level: Capacity Matrices
CONTENT AREA CONTENT STANDARDS or STRAND MEASUREMENT TOPIC MEASUREMENT TOPIC MEASUREMENT TOPIC 4 Learning Targets 3 Learning Targets 2 Learning Targets 4 Learning Targets 3 Learning Targets 2 Learning Targets 4 Learning Targets 3 Learning Targets 2 Learning Targets
CONTENT AREA SCIENCE FORCES AND MOTION CONTENT STANDARDS or STRAND • - Understands how the acceleration of moving objects is affected by the amount • of the net force applied and the mass of the object • - Understands the effects of balanced or unbalanced forces and the motion (or • lack of) they cause • 2 - Knows the following terminology: • - balanced - motion - unbalanced forces • - Knows Newton’s Laws of Motion • - Knows that motion is caused by unbalanced forces MEASUREMENT TOPIC TYPES OF FORCES MEASUREMENT TOPIC NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION MEASUREMENT TOPIC MOTION OF OBJECTS 4 Learning Targets 3 Learning Targets 2 Learning Targets 4 Learning Targets 3 Learning Targets 2 Learning Targets 4 Learning Targets 3 Learning Targets 2 Learning Targets
TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE concepts, principles terms, details (mental or psychomotor) skills, processes
UNPACKING STANDARDS and DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS 4 The KNOWLEDGE to learn and demonstrate The LEVEL OF PROCESSING the Identified Knowledge (Taxonomy Level; Reasoning Process) The ASSESSMENT ITEMS for demonstrating the Identified Knowledge at the Identified Level of Processing 3 2
Level of Rigor Learning Goals/Targets Proficiency Levels Evidence….
Level of Rigor Learning Goals/Targets Proficiency Levels Evidence….
Demonstration Tasks Help Describe the Learning Goal & Provide an Optional Piece of Evidence Less Learning Goals At Each Level Early Elementary Goals Reasoning Processes Initials
Learning = processing that knowledge Declarative Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Skills Processes Info • Facts, Details • Organizing • Ideas • Mental • Psychomotor
Knowledge Knowledge Levels of Processing (or Learning) the Knowledge The Cognitive System Using K…. Decision Making, Problem Solving, Inventing, Experimental Inquiry, Investigating & Systems Analysis Analyzing K…. Comparing, Classifying, Analogical Thinking, Analyzing Perspectives, Constructing Support & Analyzing Errors in Reasoning, Inductive & Deductive Thinking Comprehending K…. Integrating - Symbolizing Retrieving K…. Recalling - Recognizing - Executing Marzano’s Taxonomy!
TAXONOMY (Maine Cohort for Customized Learning) USING KNOWLEDGE Generating & Testing Ideas to Address Situations & Issues Generating & Testing Hypotheses to Clarify Phenomena & Events Investigating Historical-Projective-Definitional Generate and test a hypothesis using assertions and opinions Situational Problem Solving Accomplish a goal for which obstacles exit Systems Analysis Invention Develop unique product/process that fulfills a perceived need Experimental Inquiry Generate and test a hypothesis using data collection Decision Making Use information to make a decision +Test the idea +What can be predicted +What would happen if +How would you determine if +How would you test +How can this be explained • How did this happen • Why did this happen • What would have happened if • Investigate • Research • Find out about • Solve • Develop a strategy • Figure out a way • How will you reach your goal under these conditions • How would you overcome + Explain purpose of system + Describe how parts affect each other + What would happen if parts change • Create • Devise • Generate a new way to • Change the way • Think of another way • Decide • Select the best alternatives • What is the best way • Which of these is most suitable ANALYZING KNOWLEDGE Examining & Generating Similarities & Differences Examining & Generating Arguments & Assertions Analyzing & Generating Logical Hypotheses Comparing Identify similarities & differences among specific things or ideas Deductive Reasoning Identify logical conclusions or predictions of information Classifying Process of grouping items according to similarities Analogical Thinking Process of showing relationship between items across two domains Analyzing Perspectives Identify reasons logic for multiple perspectives on an issue Analyzing Errors in Reasoning Identify logical or factual errors in knowledge Inductive Reasoning Infer new generalizations from known knowledge Constructing Support Build support for assertions or statements • Make and defend • Predict • Judge • Deduce • Develop an • argument for • What would have • to happen • Infer • Create a principle • Create a rule • What inferences can • be made • What conclusions • can be drawn • Revise • Edit • Evaluate • Identify errors • Identify problems • Assess • Critique • Analyze the • perspective of • Identify the logic • behind • Explain the reasons • behind • Explain why • someone might think • Compare • Compare & contrast • Differentiate • Discriminate • Distinguish • Sort • Categorize • Organize • Identify types of • Identify categories • Compare • Compare & contrast • Create an analogy • Create a metaphor • Take a position on • Defend your • position on • Explain your • reasoning • for COMPREHENDING KNOWLEDGE Symbolizing Construct symbolic representations of information Integrating Identify basic elements/structure of knowledge • Symbolize • Represent • Draw/Illustrate • Show • Diagram • Chart • Describe how or why • Describe the key parts of • Describe the relationship between • Describe the effects • Explain ways in which • Paraphrase, Summarize RETRIEVING KNOWLEDGE Recognizing Identify accurate statements regarding DK and PK Recalling Produce information regarding DK and PK Executing Carry out a mental or physical procedure • Recognize • Select from a list • Identify from a list • Determine if the statements are • true or false • Name • List • Label • State • Describe • Who, What, Where, When • Draft • Complete • Solve • Read • Demonstrate • Write • Add • Subtract • Multiply, Divide
Planning (Stimulus) Questions for Structured Tasks Analysis Comparing • Would it be useful to show how things are similar and/or different? • Would it be useful for students to focus on identifying how similar things are different and how different things are similar? Classifying • Would it be helpful to have students group things? • Would it be beneficial for students to generate a number of ways to group the same list of things? Analogical Thinking • Is there a relationship in one domain that could be used to understand something in a very different domain? • Could something complex or unfamiliar be understood better by connecting it to a relationship from something simple or more familiar? Constructing Support • Are there important claims to be refuted or supported? • Would it be important to examine existing arguments that support or refute a claim? Analyzing Errors in Reasoning • Are there situations in which it would be beneficial to identify errors in reasoning? Analyzing Perspectives • Would it be useful to identify and understand the reasoning or logic behind a perspective on a topic or issue? • Would it be useful to analyze opposing perspectives on a topic or issue? Inductive Reasoning • Are there important unstated conclusions that could be generated from observations or facts? • Are there situations for which probable or likely conclusions could be generated? • Are there issues or situations for which students could examine the inductive reasoning used? Deductive Reasoning • Are there generalizations (or rules or principles) that could be applied to reach conclusions and make predictions? • Are there topics or issues for which students could examine the validity of the deductive reasoning used? Debra Pickering: Senior Scholar, Marzano Research Lab, MCCL Reasoning Processes Training 2013
Planning (Stimulus) Questions for Structured Tasks Using Knowledge • Decision Making • • Is there an unresolved decision important to the unit? • • Is there an unresolved issue about who or what • has the most or least? • is the best or worst? • Problem Solving • • Is there a situation in which a goal cannot be achieved because of a major constraint or limiting condition? • • Is there a situation or process that could be better understood if constraints or limiting conditions were placed on it? • Invention • • Is there a situation that can and should be improved on? • • Is there something new that should be created? • Experimental Inquiry • • Is there an unexplained phenomenon (physical or psychological) for which students could generate explanations that can be tested? • Investigation • • Is there an unresolved issue about something for which a resolution could be posed? For example, are there unresolved issues about • the defining characteristics of something? (Definitional) • how or why something occurred? (Historical) • what would happen if or what would have happened if? (Projective) • Systems Analysis • • Is there a system for which the interaction of parts could be clarified? • • Is there a system for which parts could be altered and then conclusions drawn about potential effects? Debra Pickering: Senior Scholar, Marzano Research Lab, MCCL Reasoning Processes Training 2013
About the Scoring Scales within our curriculum: “assessment & instruction must have a “hand in glove” relationship if they are to be successful.” Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model, Marzano, Pickering & McTighe P. 43
Formative & Summative SCORES It is about: Feedback-Feedback-Feedback
Reading Foundations Pathway Part 1 • Measurement Topics: • Print Concepts • Phonological Awareness • Phonics • Word Recognition
Reading Foundations Pathway Part 2 • Measurement Topics: • Print Concepts • Phonological Awareness • Phonics
Reading Foundations Pathway Part 3 • Measurement Topics: • Phonics • Word Recognition
Declarative Knowledge (Rules): Nouns & Pronouns, Adverbs, Adjectives, Verbs, Sentences, Conjunctions, & Phrases, Capitalization, Punctuation, & Spelling Convention Scopes 2 1 3 Sentence Fluency Traits of Writing 2 1 3 4 Word Choice 2 1 Voice 2 1 Planning & Drafting Learner’s Writing Process Pathway 2 1 3 4 5 7 6 Revising & Editing Writing Process 2 1 Production & Distribution 2 1 3 4 6 5 Accessing Information Research 2 1 3 Analyzing Information 7 2 5 1 3 4 6 Opinion/Argument 7 2 5 1 3 4 6 Informative Ideas & Organization 7 2 5 1 3 4 6 Narrative