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By: Syrian American Council (SAC)

By: Syrian American Council (SAC). The Syrian Revolution. Syrian American Council. www.sacouncil.com. Outline. 1- History of syria - Geography - Demographic - Modern history 2- The revolution - The start - Stories from revolution - News reports 3- Conclusion and outcome

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By: Syrian American Council (SAC)

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  1. By: Syrian American Council(SAC) • The Syrian Revolution Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  2. Outline 1- History of syria - Geography - Demographic - Modern history 2- The revolution - The start - Stories from revolution - News reports 3- Conclusion and outcome - What can we do ? Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  3. History of Syria • Geographic location: Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  4. History of Syria Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  5. Demographic - Population : 23 Million. - Area: 71,000 Sq M (about 40% the size of California) - Ethnics: 90% Arabs, 9% Kurds, 1% Other - Religions: - 74% Sunni Muslims - 12% Alawite Muslims - 10% Christians - 3% Druz - Literacy: 86% - Per Capital GDP: $5,100 (Ranked 14 out of 225 nations) Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  6. Modern History • Syrian Republic is exactly 80 years old (established 1932) • Gained independence from France 1946 • Multi party democracy for 3 years 1946-1949 • USA sponsored military coup d'état led by Hussni Alzaim • Political instability between 1949- 1954 • Multi party democracy 1954-1958 • Union with Egypt 1958-1961 • Military coup that brought the Baath party to power 1963 till NOW • Under Baath pretext Hafiz Assad military coup in 1970 • Hafez Assad ruled Syria for 30 years 1970-2000 • Bashar Assad inherited the Republic in 2000 and has been ruling Syria since then Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  7. Modern History • Major events during Al Baath power : • The six days war of 1967 • The war of 1973 • Hama massacre in February 1982 • Participated in Gulf war 1990 • Hafiz Assad died in 2000 • Bashar inherited the republic in 2000 • Arabs Spring - December 2010 • March 15, 2011 The start of Syrian revolution AND the Spring is yet to come .. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  8. Modern History • Syria During Baath Party Rule: • In 1963 a purging Nasserist tried to coup and failed and that's when Al Baath monopolized power (800 people reported killed, 20 were executed) • In 1966 old guard of Al Baath removed by left wing army officers and bloody fighting took place in many cities across Syria, and a counter coup attempt by Hatoum failed because of Assad grip of air force. Hatoum was shot in 1967 after he tried to return to Syria . • “We shall never call for nor accept peace. We shall only accept war. We have resolved to drench this land with your blood. To oust you aggressors, to throw you into the sea.” - Then Syrian Defense Minister Hafez Assad Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  9. Modern History • Hama Massacre 1982: • The Syrian city of Hama was the scene of a massacre in 1982 when President Hafez al-Assad razed the city to crush a rebellion, slaughtering approximately 40,000 of his own people, and 100,000 were left homeless . • Assad's troops lead by Rifaat Assad (Hafiz’s brother), pounded Hama with artillery fire for several days and, with the city in ruins, his bulldozers moved in and flattened neighbor hoods. • The 1982 massacre is regarded as the single bloodiest assault by an Arab ruler against his own people in modern times and remains a pivotal event in Syrian history. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  10. Modern History • After he carried the mission of destroying Hama in 1982, Rifaat al-Assad attempted to use the security forces under his control to seize power in 1984. • Tensions between Hafez loyalists and Rifaat supporters came close to all-out war. • The stand-off was not ended until Hafez, who was ill at the time, rose from his bed to resume power and speak to the nation. • Rifaat left the country since then and never came back. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  11. Modern History • Assad managed to stay in power for 30 years and he bring stability to a country. • He used the secular Baath party as a cover for installing the Alawite minority into important positions throughout the special forces, intelligence and armored corps Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  12. Modern History • Then comes Bashar: • Bashar inherited the republic after his dad died in 2000. • The Parliament amended the constitution, reducing the mandatory minimum age of the President from 40 to 34 to allow Bashar to become legally eligible for nomination • 97.29 % Referendum !! Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  13. Modern History • Bashar followed the same polices his dad used to practice. • He tried to enhance the economy, however all large businesses in the country was owned by his cousin Rami Makhlouf who thought to control as much as 60% of the Syrian economy through his web of business interests that include telecommunications, oil and gas, construction, banking, airlines and retail. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  14. Modern History • Relation with neighbors: • A number of unsuccessful Syrian attempts to kill the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat • Torture, disappearance of opposing Palestinians and Lebanese activists • weathered Israeli invasion of Lebanon June 6, 1982 • Continued control of Lebanon till 2006 Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  15. Modern History • Internal security and intelligence: • The top leaderships, are largely made up of members of Assad's own extended family. • Several branches of the security services operate independently of each other • branches of the security services outside the legal system and continue to be responsible for human rights violations. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  16. Outline 1- History of syria - Geography - Demographic - Modern history 2- The revolution - The start - Stories from revolution - News reports 3- Conclusion and outcome - What can we do ? Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  17. The Revolution • Inspired by the revolutions in other Arab revolutions, Syrians called for protest against the Assad regime on March 15, 2011 • Simultaneous demonstrations took place in major cities across Syria. Increasingly, the city of Daraa became the focal point for the growing uprising. • Over 100,000 people reportedly marched in Daraa on 25 March, but at least 20 protesters were reportedly killed. • Protests also spread to other Syrian cities, including Homs, Hama, Baniyas, Aleppo, Damascus and Latakia. Over 70 protesters in total were reported dead. • In April, the uprising became more extensive, and the regime’s reaction was more violent. • Protesters were shot at on April 1st, leading to at least 10 deaths. • Tens of thousands of protesters were prevented from entering Damascus from Douma on April 15th, though this restriction did not prevent widespread protests in many Syrian cities. • .Other cities where protesting was particularly strong were in Daraa, Baniyas, Al-Qamishli and Homs. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  18. The Revolution • There were also protests in Douma and Harasta, suburbs of Damascus. ‘ • In October 2011 the opposition group SNC was formed • Russia and China veto a UN resolution condemning Syria • During the Baba Amr district massacres in February 2012, US journalist Marie Colvin was among the dead • March 2012 – Karm al-Zeitoun Massacre • May 2012 – Pro-Assad militias kill more than a hundred civilians including 32 children in Houla. Many countries expel senior Syrian diplomats in protest • July 2012 - Free Syrian Army blows up 3 security chiefs in Damascus • August – Prime Minister Riad Hijab defects • October – Syrian regime agrees to 4-day UN ceasefire during Eid, during which it killed more than 500. • November 2012 – Syrian opposition meets in Doha, forms the National Coalition. European Union, Gulf Cooperation Council recognize the Coalition as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  19. The Revolution • 11,000 people were reported dead in the first year, out of which 800 children & 700 women • 20 months later, more than 40,000 were reportedly dead, including more than 3000 women and 3000 children Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  20. The Revolution Stories from revolution: Hakam Darak Alsibai: • Volunteer for Syrian Arab Red Crescent: Died from Resulting Injuries • After ambulance was targeted with heavy fire while transporting a wounded person, said the relief agency; two others also injured. • Systemic targeting of ambulances by the security forces is wide spread and has occurred from the early days of the revolution. • The International Committee of the Red Cross urged that security forces to observe international law and allow Red Crescent and Red Cross, medics, who are easily identifiable by their uniforms, to do their job. • The injured civilian in Syria are not able to reach hospitals and if they do they are arrested on arrival. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  21. The Revolution • Stories from revolution: Hamza AL-Khatib • Arrested during a protest in Saida, 10km east of Daraa, on April 29, Hamza's body was returned to his family on Tuesday 24th May, horribly mutilated. The child had spent nearly a month in the custody of Syrian security, and when they finally returned his corpse it bore the scars of brutal torture: Lacerations, bruises and burns to his feet, elbows, face and knees, consistent with the use of electric shock devices and of being whipped with cable, both techniques of torture documented by Human Rights Watch as being used in Syrian prisons during the bloody three-month crackdown on protestors. • Hamaza has became a symbol for all Syrian children who were killed and tortured. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  22. The Revolution • Stories from revolution: • Tal al Mallohi: born in January 4, 1991 a Syrian blogger from Homs. • She has been called "the youngest prisoner of conscience in the Arab world". • On 27 December 2009, Tal was taken from her home by officers of one of the security offices in Syria because she has written poems about Palestine and social commentaries on her blog. • Ever since, her parents didn't know which security office has detained her nor where they can visit their daughter. • Tal al-Mallohi has been accused by the Syrian government of being a spy for the United States of America, and sentenced on February 15, 2011 to five years in prison. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  23. The Revolution • Stories from revolution: Ibrahim Qashoush: • was a fireman and amateur poet from Hama, Syria. During the 2011 Syrian uprising, Qashoush was noted for singing and authoring songs mocking Syrian president Bashar al-Assad and the ruling Ba'ath party. The protest anthem, "Come on, Bashar, time to leave", is attributed to him. On 4 July 2011, Qashoush was found dead in the Orontes River, his throat cut and his vocal cords ripped out. After his murder, fellow protesters hailed Qashoush as the "nightingale of the revolution” Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  24. The Revolution • Stories from revolution: Malek Jandali: • Born in Germany to Syrian parents in 1972, award-winning composer and pianist, Malek Jandali, is recognized as a leading figure in today's piano world. His outstanding recordings and extensive concert tours receive abundantly glowing praise. His musical career as a concert pianist began in 1988 after winning the first prize at the National Young Artists’ competition followed by the 1997 “Outstanding Musical Performer Award” in the United States. • Malek played a song that he wrote called I am my home land in protest in DC back in July 23 2011 and few days later his parents who lives in Homs were attacked brutally. Malek parents attack • Malek composed a symphony in 2012 inspired from Qashoush song. Freedom symphony Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  25. Outline 1- History of syria -Geography - Demographic - Modern history 2- The revolution - The start - Stories from revolution - News reports 3- Conclusion and outcome - What can we do ? Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  26. Conclusion and outcomes • The Syrian uprising has been going on for more than two years with no end in sight. • The Syrian regime has continued to blame the violence on terrorism and has been continued to claim that its military forces are defending the country. • Many tries for taking action in the UN against The regime had been stopped by Russia and China, whose governments have backed the Assad government, and have previously blocked any reference threatening sanctions. • UN sent Envoys Kofi Annan then Lakhdar Brahimi in order to try to find a political solution, but the regime continued to its violence. • Killing hasn’t stopped YET.. Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

  27. Conclusion and outcomes What’s Next? • Possible scenarios: • The fall of the Assad regime would require an external intervention and/or supporting the Free Syrian Army with the means to defend themselves and topple the regime. • Assad remains in power for years to come and continues to escalate violence resulting in civil war, inflamed regional conflicts and more death and destruction. • Assad crushes the uprising with the backing of Russia, China and Iran, and cement his rule for the next generation. Think North Korea.

  28. Conclusion and outcomes • What can we do: • Contact the While House and US Congress and tell them to support the help the Syrian people topple the regime • Donate to humanitarian organizations working in Syria or in refugee camps • Become a SAC member and volunteer www.sacouncil.com • Write a letter to the editor in your local newspaper • Organize a rally or a town hall meeting to raise awareness • Use social media to spread the word • www.facebook.com/Syrian.Revolution • Syrian Human Rights Committee www.shrc.org • www.SyrianSupportGroup.org

  29. Thank You Syrian American Council www.sacouncil.com

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