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The Study of Life Chapter 1
What is biology? (Brainstorming)
The Science of LIFE • The study of living things…. • Origins and history of life • Structures of living things • How living things function • How living things interact with each other • How living things interact with the environment
Why is it important to study biology? (Brainstorming)
What do biologists study? • Diversity of life • Diseases • Develop technology • Improve agriculture • Preserve the environment
What are some living things? What are NOT living things?
The Characteristics of Life Anthrax bacteria Fiddle leaf morning glory Red wing blackbird Grizzly bear Florida manatee
The Characteristics of Life What does it mean to be ALIVE?
Characteristics of Life • Made of one or more cells • The cell is the basic unit of life • Some organisms are unicellular while others are multicellular Epithelial Cells Paramecium cells
Characteristics of Life 2. Displays organization
Characteristics of Life • Grow and Develop • Growth results in increase in size • Development results in different abilities/stages
Characteristics of Life 4. Reproduces
Characteristics of Life • Responds to stimuli • Reactions to internal and external stimuli are called responses
Characteristics of Life 6. Requires energy
Characteristics of Life 7. Maintains homeostasis • All organisms keep internal conditions stable
Characteristics of Life 8. Adaptations evolve over time • Adaptations are inherited changes that occur over time that help the species survive.
The Characteristics of Life Review the pictures and diagrams representing the characteristics. Explain to the class how the characteristic of life is represented in the picture/diagram. Come up with another example that illustrates the characteristic of life.
Images gathered from : • http://stephanierosebio156.blogspot.com/2008/06/cells-compendium.html • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/442957/6853/Paramecium-caudatum • http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/urinary/renal19.htm • http://www.lattc.edu/dept/lattc/WED/GCIActivities.html • http://www.zooborns.com/zooborns/2009/09/baby-chimp-zoe-oklahoma-city-zoo.html • http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/plants/plantstructures/section1.html • http://www.waterwatchadelaide.net.au/index.php?page=life-cycle • http://frtim.wordpress.com/category/hingham/ • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Squirrel_eating_peanut_12u07.JPG • http://www.ccs.k12.in.us/chsBS/kons/kons/charoflifenote.htm • http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/lifeforms/epiphytes/a0070Atx.html • http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04deepscope/background/deeplight/media/fig3c.html
SQR – Survey, Question, Read • Survey • Read all the headings and subheadings • Skim the introductory paragraph • Look at the pictures and read the captions under the pictures • Read the bold vocabulary words • Question • Turn the headings and subheadings into questions • Read • Read the text ONE section at a time • Reread the captions and look at the pictures • Locate the answers to your questions • Monitor your reading – reread any passages you did not understand
Chapter 1.2The Nature of Science http://www.nda-analytics.com/pages/techniques/wet_chemistry.htm http://biology.usgs.gov/ecosystems/global_change/effects_land_use.html
What is science? • Science – body of knowledge based on study of nature; based in observations and experimentation • Relies on evidence • Theory – an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time • Pseudoscience – areas of study that try to imitate science (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPk9LM44mLA) • Expands scientific knowledge • Challenges accepted theories • Questions results • Test claims • Undergoes peer review • Uses the metric system • International System of Units (SI)
Science in Everyday Life • Ethics – set of moral principles or values • Scientists provide information about our expanding knowledge of the natural world and society decides how to use that knowledge
QUIZ TOMORROW • What is biology? • Characteristics of Life • Cells • Organization • Growth/development • Reproduction • Response to stimulus • Energy • Homeostasis • Adaptations over time • Nature of science • Science/Pseudoscience • Theory • Peer Review • Metric system • Ethics
Data Analysis Lab 1.1 • With a partner, complete the Data Analysis Lab 1.1 on p. 14 • Use graph paper to make a table and graph as instructed. • Refer to pp. 1115-1118 for assistance in determining the best line and calculating slope. • Answer question 4 in complete sentences.
Chapter 1.3 Methods of Science
What is the difference between these two statements: • The man is facing the cow. • The man is scared of the cow.
Methods of Science • We can learn about the world only through our observations. • An observation is a direct method for obtaining information by using the senses.
Inference • An inference is an assumption based on prior experience • Combine what you have learned with what you have observed; make logical assumption • Can lead to a hypothesis
Look at the picture below and read the following statements. Which statements are observations? Which are inferences? • The cow is brown. • The man is talking to the cow. • The cow is confused. • The man is wearing a blue pullover. • The man is not afraid of the cow. • This picture was taken at a farm. • The cow has a tag in its left ear.
What’s happening in this picture? A cowbird (at right) feeds from a blue-winged warbler. From Nature Conservancy, Sept-Oct 1994. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5aQX_MRKkU&feature=related
Scientific Methods • A scientist uses a scientific method whenever he/she: • attempts to explain observations about the natural world. • test inferences based on observations.
Scientific Methods Scientific method
Scientific Methods • Ask a question • Hypothesis • Collect Data (Experiment) • Analyze Data • Report Conclusions
Ask A Question • What are your observations and inferences regarding this topic? • What do you need to research? What factors increase the rate of mold growth on bread?
Hypothesis • An “educated guess.” • Based on specific observations. • Must be a statement. • Must be stated in a way that allows it to be tested. • Must be able to prove the hypothesis “false.” • What are some good hypotheses? Which factors will affect mold growth? What do you think will happen? Can your statement be tested? Does it make a prediction?
Experiment • A controlled experiment is any procedure created to test a hypothesis in a controlled setting. • experimental group – the group receiving the factor being tested • control group – the group not receiving the factor being tested (used for comparison)
Experimental Design • Any factor that can change in an experiment is called a variable. • An independent variable is tested during an experiment. There is usually only one. • Often called the experimental variable. • The dependent variable changes because of changes made to the independent variable.
Controlled Experiments A controlled experiment is one in which all of the variables are held constant except one. These constant variables are called controlled variables.
Collecting Data • data – information gained from your observations • quantitative – data collected as numbers • qualitative – data collected as descriptions of observations (i.e. color, behaviors, odors)
Experiment and Data Collection • What is your experimental group? • What is your control group? • What are the variables? Which variable is the dependent variable? Independent variable? • How will you measure your results? • How will you collect data? • How will you present your data? Tables? Graphs?
Analyze Data • Was your hypothesis supported? • Are your results reliable? • How does this contribute to the field of science? • What further studies could be done to enhance this knowledge? • What errors occurred in your experiment? • Do you have multiple results that exhibit the pattern?