Fluency Strategies • Phrasing: read several words together • Assisted reading: Provide reader w/support • Rereading: to develop rapid, fluent oral reading • Expressing: learn about how text “comes to life”, has meaning, and purpose • Pacing: rate and flow • Wide Reading: read…A LOT • Accuracy: words correctly read
Rereading • Taped Reading: student reads aloud once or twice, then records; student listens, follows along, then rerecords • Echo Reading: expert reads, student echoes; amount of text increases • Choral reading: simultaneous oral reading • Readers’ Theatre: play w/o memorization, scenes, props • Keeping track: graphing over time
Expressing • As group, record an emotion on one 3x5 card. Record a simple statement on another. Example: “You are so funny” • 1, 5: ironic • 2, 6: serious • 3, 7: sarcastic • 4, 8: humorous 2. Cards will get mixed up and dealt back to a table. 3. When your group gets an emotion and a statement, practice for sharing with the class. 4. We will guess your emotion from hearing how you recite your statement.
Pacing • Beam reading: keep up as laser moves faster • Keeping tempo: beat with maracas • Close-captioned Diddle, diddle dumpling, my son John Diddle, diddle dumpling, my son John
Wide Reading • Book boxes • “Just right” books/Five finger rule • Book clubs
Assessing Fluency: (Chapter 9/11, Honig et al) • When? • What text? • How measured? • Can students: • Recognize letters, clusters, words • Group words into phrase units • Cross checking for semantics, syntax, graphophonics • Attend to punctuation • Enhance expression • Adjust speed to text supports • Reread to clarify • Read a variety of genres
Prosody: Using a Qualitative Rubric • 4. Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from the text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author’s syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. Reads at an appropriate rate. • 3. Reads primarily in three- and four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. Reader attempts to read expressively and some of the story is read with expression. Generally reads at an appropriate rate. • 2. Reads primarily in two-word phrase groups with some three- and four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to the larger context of the sentence or passage. A small portion of the text is read with expressive interpretation. Reads significant sections of the text excessively slow or fast. • 1. Reads primarilyword-by-word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may occur-but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Lacks expressive interpretation. Reads text excessively slow. • A score of 1 should also be given to a student who reads with excessive speed, ignoring punctuation and other phrase boundaries, and reads with little or no expression.
R.I.C.A. • What did you find out about Content Domains 2 , 3 and 4? • How will this information serve you when getting ready for the R.I.C.A.? • Talk in small groups. Be ready to share out.
Five Components of ReadingNational Reading Panel • Phonemic Awareness • Ability to orally compose a sequence of sounds and manipulate these sounds to form words • Phonics • Ability to recognize the relation between the written language and the spoken language • Fluency • Ability to read orally with speed and accuracy • Vocabulary • Ability to use words orally and in written communication by applying word meaning effectively • Comprehension • Ability to apply meaning to what is read
Language and Vocabulary: A balanced approach… learning solely writing word through context definitions and experience
Vocabulary Instruction • Why? • How? • Which words?
Research estimates that students learn… …approximately 3,000 to 4,000 words each year …accumulating a reading vocabulary of approximately 25,000 words by the end of elementary school …and approximately 50,000 words by the end of high school. Beck, I.L. and McKeown (2002) Bringing Words to Life, Robust Vocabulary Instruction
One Vocabulary Instructional ProgramMichael Graves, 2006The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction • Providing Rich and Varied Language Experiences • Teaching Individual Words • Teaching Word Learning Strategies • Fostering Word Consciousness
Providing Rich and Varied Language Experiences • Read alouds • Independent reading • Writing activities that focus on word choice and usage • Author study • Book talks/literature discussion groups • Genre study
Teaching Individual Words • Students acquire new word meanings through explicit vocabulary instruction • Activities that focus on specific words to learn entirely new words as well as enhanced meanings of familiar words
brave Associating: Concept Wheel • “What words do you think of when I say, _____ ?” • List words. • Read definition. Compare. • “What three other words will help you remember the word _____ ?” brave courageous valiant daring bold having courage :DAUNTLESS ; 2: making a fine show :COLORFUL < brave banners flying in the wind>; 3:EXCELLENT , SPLENDID <the brave fire I soon had going
brave In my life: my definition: opposite: Associating/Visualizing: Verbal Visual Word Association
Next Time… Read:Graves: Preface and Framework (http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/rlafw.pdf), Chapters 1 (Introduction) and 2 (Goal and Key Components of Effective Language Arts Instruction) In addition: Sign up for and read pages for one of the following expert groups Graves: Chapter 3, 5, 6, or 10, Framework (http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/rlafw.pdf): Chapter 3 (K – 3) or Chapter 4, (4—6) Do: Read, do and bring in Action 3.5 in Graves (write ONLY for 8-10 minutes…HANDWRITTEN)
Bibliography • Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary and Spelling Instruction by Bear et al • The Fluent Reader by Timothy Rasinski • The Reading Teacher, October 2007 (vocabulary articles) • Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction by Beck et al. • The Vocabulary Book by Michael Graves • Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Reading Comprehension by William Nagy • Sheila Rae, the Brave by Kevin Henkes • Creating Strategic Readers by Valerie Ellery