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3. Statistical Process Control. Yan Shi SE 3730 / CS 5730 Lecture Notes. Outline. About Deming Statistical Process Control Tools The Red Bead Experiment Deming’s 14 Quality Principles The Deming Cycle for continuous process improvement and Software Life Cycles. Who is Deming?.

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3 statistical process control

3. Statistical Process Control

Yan Shi

SE 3730 / CS 5730 Lecture Notes

outline
Outline
  • About Deming
  • Statistical Process Control Tools
  • The Red Bead Experiment
  • Deming’s 14 Quality Principles
  • The Deming Cycle for continuous process improvementand Software Life Cycles
who is deming
Who is Deming?
  • The W. Edwards Deming Institute
  • The Deming Prize
dr w edwards deming
Dr. W. Edwards Deming
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHvnIm9UEoQ
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mKFGj8sK5R8
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WeTaLRb-Bs
software process management
Software Process Management
  • Software Process:
    • A structured set of activities required to develop a software system.
  • Four responsibilities of software process management:
    • Define the process
    • Measure the process
    • Control the process
    • Improve the process
statistical process control
Statistical Process Control
  • Statistical Process Control:
    • process control using statistical methods
    • Monitor and control a process by analyzing variations.

Controlled process

 stable

 predictable results

Continuous

improvement

 capability measurement

two sources of process variation
Two Sources of Process Variation
  • Chance variation:
    • Inherent in process
    • Stable over time
    • Common Cause variation (Deming)
  • Assignable variation
    • Uncontrolled
    • Unstable over time
    • Result of specific events outside the system
    • Special Causevariation (Deming)

http://www.moresteam.com/toolbox/statistical-process-control-spc.cfm

why statistical technique
Why Statistical Technique?
  • We need to understand the current performanceof a process.
    • Then we can determine if a process gets better or worse under different conditions.
    • Then we can statistically identify outliersand study what made them different from other instances.
      • We expect process outcomes to be normally distributed about the process mean (average).
      • Outliers are anomalies, either very good or very poor outcomes. We would not expect outcomes this good or bad just by chance.
      • Often we can learn more about a process by studying outliers than by studying normal outcomes.
understand your data
Understand Your Data
  • Organize and summarize your data
  • Look for patterns, trends and relationships
  • Scatter diagrams
  • Run charts
  • Cause-effect diagrams
  • Histograms
  • Bar charts
  • Pareto charts
  • Control charts
application areas for analytic tools
Application Areas for Analytic Tools

Problem

Identification

Problem

Analysis

Check sheet

Histogram

Cause-effect

diagram

Brian storming

Scatter diagram

Run chart

Bar charts

Process capability analysis

Pareto chart

Control chart

Regression analysis

scatter diagram
Scatter Diagram

A plot of observed values that shows how one variable has behaved

relative to another.

scatter diagram1
Scatter Diagram
  • Look for correlations or relationships.
  • Often used as the first step in the search of cause-effect relationship.
    • Does the size of the system determines the amount of effort put to the project?
    • Does the length of training have anything to do with the # of defects one engineer injects?
    • Are there any obvious trends in the data?
  • Limitation: only deal with two variables at a time.
run chart
Run Chart

A plot of individual values arranged in a time sequence.

run chart1
Run Chart
  • Monitor the process: what is the trend?
  • Often trends become apparent in a run chart and can lead to an understanding of the cause.
    • Something is happening at 1:30am.
  • Also used for tracking the improvements to determine whether an approach is successful or not.
  • An average/mean line can be added to clarify movement of the data away from the average.
  • Precursor to control chart: not every variation is important.
cause effect diagram fishbone
Cause-Effect Diagram (Fishbone)

A graphical displayto list a set of possible factors that affect

a process, problem or outcome.

how to draw a ce diagram
How to Draw a CE Diagram
  • Step 1: Write down the effect to be investigated and draw the 'backbone' arrow to it.
  • Step 2: Identify all the broad areas in which the causes of the effect being investigated may lie.
  • Step 3: Write all the detailed possible causes in each of the broad areas. Each cause identified should be fully explored for further more specific causes which, in turn, contribute to them.

http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite3/toolkit/causeand.htm

cause effect diagram
Cause-Effect Diagram
  • Often called Ishikawa charts or fishbone charts.
  • Can be used for
    • Exploring the behavior of a process
    • Locate problems
    • Search for root causes
  • When assembling CE diagrams, involve
    • People who actually work in the process
    • Experts in different parts of the process
  • Three types:
    • Dispersion analysis type
    • Production process classification type
    • Cause enumeration type

Brain storming sessions!

dispersion analysis ce diagram
Dispersion Analysis CE Diagram
  • Constructed by repeatedly asking “Why does the dispersion/scatter occur?”
  • Pros: Organize and relate factors that cause variability in products and other process outcomes.
  • Cons: dependent on the views of people making it.
production process classification ce diagram
Production Process Classification CEDiagram
  • Constructed by stepping mentally through the production process.
    • Process steps are displayed along the backbone in boxes;
    • Causes are depicted on lines that feed into either a box or backbone connections.
  • Pros: easy to construct and understand.
  • Cons: same causes may appear multiple times.
cause enumeration ce diagram
Cause Enumeration CE Diagram
  • Constructed by listing all possible causes and then organizing them to show their relationships to the aspect of product/process quality.
  • Principal categories: people, methods, materials/inputs, tools, etc.
  • May end up with a similar CE diagram as dispersion analysis type, but are more free-form.
  • Pros: less likely to overlook major causes.
  • Cons: may be hard to relate small twigs to the end result hard to draw and interpret.
exercise ce diagram
Exercise (CE Diagram)
  • A large-scale online shopping system
  • Server hosted at Platteville
  • Server maintenance
  • Requirement Engineer
  • Developer
  • Customer service
  • Project Manager
  • Facility Manager
  • E-Commerce Expert
histograms
Histograms

Organize data based on frequency of occurrence.

histogram
Histogram
  • Easy to compare distributions and see central tendencies and dispersions.
  • Helpful trouble shooting aids.
  • Useful for summarizing the performance of a process w.r.t. specification limits.  assess the process capability
pareto chart
Pareto Chart

Frequency counts in descending order.

pareto chart1
Pareto Chart
  • Pareto analysis is a process for ranking causes, alternatives or outcomes to help determine which should be high-priority actions for improvement.
  • Separate the “vital few” from the “trivial many”.
  • Pareto charts can be used
    • to analyze the frequency of causes/problems in a process;
    • to analyze broad causes by looking at their specific components;
    • at various stages to help select the next step;
    • to figure out most important causes/problems;
    • to create common view within a group.
weighted pareto chart
Weighted Pareto Chart
  • Often we are more interested in the total cost of a certain problem.
control chart
Control Chart
  • Also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts
types of control chart
Types of Control Chart
  • X-bar chart: average chart. Show the observed variation in center tendency.
  • R chart: Show the observed dispersion in process performance across subgroups. Work well for sample size of 10 or less.
  • S chart: standard deviation chart. Work better for sample size larger than 10.
  • XmR chart: individuals and moving range chart
  • And more…
control chart how to draw
Control Chart: How to Draw

Subgroup averages

Subgroup ranges

Moving averages

Moving ranges

CL+3

Upper Control

Limit (UCL)

Centerline (CL)

CL

Quality Statistic

Process average

Lower Control

Limit (LCL)

CL-3

Traditional limits

Time or Sequence Number 

stability detection rules
Stability Detection Rules

Test 1:A single point falls outside the 3-sigma control limits.

Test 2: At least 2 out of 3 successive values fall on the same side of, and more than 2 sigma units away from the centerline.

Test 3: At least 4 out of 5 successive values fall on the same side of, and more than 1 sigma unit away from the centerline.

Test 4: At least 8 successive values fall on the same side of the centerline.

stability detection rules1
Stability Detection Rules

3 sigma

2 sigma

1 sigma

x bar and r charts how to
X-bar and R charts: How-To
  • X-bar and R charts can portray the process behavior when you can collect multiple measurements within a short period of time under basically the same condition.
x bar and r charts how to1
X-bar and R charts: How-To

n is the sample size.

case study lab 3
Case study (Lab 3)
  • Mr. Smith is a software manager at XYZ company.
  • He is responsible for
    • A follow-up release for an existing product
    • Support service to users of that product:
      • Require 40 staff-hours per day
      • Everyone on the development team must be available to provide support service at any given time.
      • If the daily effort to support service requests exceeds the plan, it will hurt the release development schedule.
  • He has data from the past 16 weeks.
  • Does he need to change the support service procedure?
xmr chart
XmR Chart
  • If the sample size is 1, how do we calculate sigma?
    • We attribute the changes that occur between two successive values to the inherent variability in the process.
  • X: individual values
  • mR: moving range.
the red bead experiment
The Red Bead Experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JeWTD-0BRS4

“The biggest enemy of the system is common sense.” -- Deming

  • 6 willing workers
  • 2 QA engineers
  • 1 Inspector
  • 1 Recorder

Take 20 beads out from the pool with minimum # of red beads!

  • Will it help if we
    • enhance rigid and precise procedure?
    • put motivating slogans around the room?
    • set numerical objectives?
    • reward by salary increase and punish by firing?
lessons learned from the red bead experiment
Lessons Learned From the Red Bead Experiment
  • It’s the system, not the workers.
  • Management owns the system and quality is the outcome of the system  quality must start with management.
  • Rigid and precise procedures are not sufficient to produce the desired quality.
  • Extrinsic motivations is not effective.
  • Numerical goals and production standards can be meaningless.
  • By using rewards and punishment, management was tampering with a stable system.
  • And many more…
deming s 14 quality principles
Deming’s 14 Quality Principles
  • Constancy of purpose
  • The new philosophy
  • Cease dependence on mass inspection
  • End lowest tender contracts
  • Improve every process constantly and forever
  • Institute training on the job
  • Institute leadership
  • Drive out fear
  • Break down barriers between departments
  • Eliminate exhortations
  • Eliminate arbitrary numerical targets
  • Permit pride of workmanship
  • Encourage education
  • Top management commitment and action
the deming cycle
The Deming Cycle
  • Plan: define your objectives and determine how to achieve them
  • Do: execute your plan and collect data
  • Check: determine progress towards goals
  • Act: identify what need to be improved
  • Continuous improvement: successive PDCA cycles – each one refining the process or product more.
  • The “wheel within a wheel”: the relationship between strategic management and business unit management.
apply deming cycle waterfall
Apply Deming Cycle: Waterfall
  • Waterfall model:
  • PDCA can be loosely applied
    • P, D, C, A at each phase
    • Don’t progress to the next phase until we are satisfied that we have achieved the goals for the first phase.
apply deming cycle spiral
Apply Deming Cycle: Spiral
  • Spiral Model:
  • Very clear mapping of the Spiral model to the Deming cycle
apply deming cycle rup
Apply Deming Cycle: RUP
  • Rational Unified Process:
    • Easy mapping to the Deming cycle
summary
Summary
  • SPC: process stability and capability
  • 2 types of variations: common cause (chance) and special cause (assignable)
  • SPC tools:
    • Scatter diagrams
    • Run charts
    • Cause-effect diagrams
    • Histograms
    • Pareto charts
    • Control charts: X-bar, R, S, XmR
  • Deming’s 14 quality principles
  • Apply Deming cycle to Software process models