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Module 4-A Motivating Students TED 377 Methods in Sec. Ed.
Module 4-A Students will explain types of motivation and behavior management problems presented by Secondary students, including integrated students with disabilities.
Reading • Read the following in the Duplass textbook: • Topic 9: “Teacher and Student Communication”
Topics • What motivates people? • What motivates students? • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. • Aspects of motivation. • How to motivate. • Grades as motivation. • Student incentives.
What Motivates People? • Adults are motivated to seek the “good life” (self-actualization) by integrating their intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual aspects. • For teenagers, finding this equilibrium is particular difficult because they have limited life experiences from which to gain perspective.
What Motivates People? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
What Motivates Students? • DISCUSSION: What motivates students to achieve in school? • Motivation to achieve is based on: • A predisposition to achievement. • A perception of the value of the task. • The probability of success.
Teacher’s Role in Motivation • Supporting Autonomy: Creating a structure in which students feel empowered to make decisions about their learning. • Being Involved: Personally projecting warmth and interest. • Providing Structure: Being well organized and consistent, and by planning and creating tasks that require student to reach, but that are not out of their grasp.
Types of Motivation • Intrinsic motivation (doing an activity for no apparent reward other than the activity itself). • Intrinsically motivated students compete against themselves. • Extrinsic motivation (doing an activity with an expectation of a reward). • Extrinsically motivated students compete for rewards, weighing the value of the task against their need for an external reward.
Aspects of Motivation • Students tend to work harder to learn something they want to learn (intrinsically motivated) rather than to gain extrinsic rewards. • If you use an extrinsic reward to motivate students, and then you remove it, the desired behavior tends to cease.
Aspects of Motivation • Realize that not all classroom activities can be intrinsically rewarding. • The promise of a future extrinsic reward for current behavior may fail (today is Monday; Friday is far away). • Adding extrinsic rewards to already motivating activities tends to reduce student motivation.
How Can You Motivate Students in Your Classroom? Discussion • Realizing that intrinsic rewards are more effective in motivating students than extrinsic, how can you more effectively motivate students to learn? • What motivates you to learn? • What effective techniques have you seen used by other teachers?
Aspects of Motivation • Direct rewards (like money from parents for good grades or bonus points from teachers) tend to decreaseintrinsic motivation. • Positive verbal reinforcements tend to increaseintrinsic motivation.
How to Motivate • Increase intrinsic rewards. • Reinforce students’ sense of accomplishment. • Interest students interest/desire to learn a topic. • Use positive verbal reinforcements. • Use extrinsic rewards when needed. • Example: Use for learning skills, which tend to be repetitious and boring.
How to Motivate • If students are already motivated, do not use extrinsic rewards (may produce negative effects). • If student motivation slows, it is better to add an incentive than to accept poor performance or using threats and punishment.
How to Motivate • When using extrinsic rewards, counteract the negative effects on intrinsic motivation: • Make reward contingent on a desired level of performance (vs. completion of task, which leads to devaluation of the activity). • Explain to students the value and importance (long-term benefit) of gaining the skill. • Plan activities and use materials that have the potential to maintain student interest.
Grades • The most prevalent form of incentive for students is the grade. • Good grades are a powerful motivation when they are perceived to be a direct reflection of achievement and competence. Try to tie all student work to grades.
Grades • Some teachers feel too much emphasis is put on grades, and not enough emphasis on teaching/learning. • This leaves students with less control over their fate. Make the grading criteria reflect the course’s learning objectives, and ensure the criteria are clear.
Student Incentives • Recognition: • Display student work. • Award a certificate for achievement, improvement, or good behavior. • Class honor roll (names on bulletin board). • “Student of the Week.” • Verbally recognize student accomplishment. • Give public recognition to several students to avoid embarrassing individual adolescents.
Student Incentives • Academic activities as motivators: • Competition (between or within classes). • Highest overall grades, first to complete project. • Assignment recycling [mastery learning]. • Extra-credit assignments. • Student-tracked point system. • Earn points (assignments, extra credit, good behavior) over a month or marking period. Goes into course grade.
Student Incentives • Individual activities as rewards: • Working with a friend. • Free reading time. • Visit to the library. • Help to decorate a bulletin board.
Class activities as rewards: Watch a video. Free time (15 minutes). Play a game. Listen to music. No homework. Popcorn for the class. Field trip. Party. Suggestions: Let the class have a vote on the activity. Activity depends on whole class behavior. Don’t let 1 or 2 students spoil the activity. Exclude those students from participating if you can find a supervised place for them. Student Incentives If recognition will come at the end of the year, explain these awards up front so students can work toward them.
Student Incentives • Material rewards for individual students: • Food/snacks. • Old classroom materials. • Games or toys. • Books.
Responding to Students Discussion • You need to teach students a skill or have them memorize prerequisite information. They complain that the activity is boring. • What will you say to students in response? • What will you do?
Class Activity • Examining incentives and rewards. • Which of the incentives/rewards would you be inclined to use and why? • Which would you not use and why? • Consider: • Effects on student attitudes and motivation. • Behavior in the long and short-run. • Teacher time and effort required. • Perform a search for additional ideas (good and/or bad).
Review:MODULE 4-A • What motivates people? • What motivates students? • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. • Aspects of motivation. • How to motivate. • Grades as motivation. • Student incentives.