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Module 4-A Motivating Students
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  1. Module 4-A Motivating Students TED 377 Methods in Sec. Ed.

  2. Module 4-A Students will explain types of motivation and behavior management problems presented by Secondary students, including integrated students with disabilities.

  3. Reading • Read the following in the Duplass textbook: • Topic 9: “Teacher and Student Communication”

  4. Topics • What motivates people? • What motivates students? • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. • Aspects of motivation. • How to motivate. • Grades as motivation. • Student incentives.

  5. Teacher Observations of the Middle School

  6. Middle Grades Teaching Strategies Used to Motivate Students

  7. What Motivates People? • Adults are motivated to seek the “good life” (self-actualization) by integrating their intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual aspects. • For teenagers, finding this equilibrium is particular difficult because they have limited life experiences from which to gain perspective.

  8. What Motivates People? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  9. What Motivates Students? • DISCUSSION: What motivates students to achieve in school? • Motivation to achieve is based on: • A predisposition to achievement. • A perception of the value of the task. • The probability of success.

  10. Teacher’s Role in Motivation • Supporting Autonomy: Creating a structure in which students feel empowered to make decisions about their learning. • Being Involved: Personally projecting warmth and interest. • Providing Structure: Being well organized and consistent, and by planning and creating tasks that require student to reach, but that are not out of their grasp.

  11. Types of Motivation • Intrinsic motivation (doing an activity for no apparent reward other than the activity itself). • Intrinsically motivated students compete against themselves. • Extrinsic motivation (doing an activity with an expectation of a reward). • Extrinsically motivated students compete for rewards, weighing the value of the task against their need for an external reward.

  12. Aspects of Motivation • Students tend to work harder to learn something they want to learn (intrinsically motivated) rather than to gain extrinsic rewards. • If you use an extrinsic reward to motivate students, and then you remove it, the desired behavior tends to cease.

  13. Aspects of Motivation • Realize that not all classroom activities can be intrinsically rewarding. • The promise of a future extrinsic reward for current behavior may fail (today is Monday; Friday is far away). • Adding extrinsic rewards to already motivating activities tends to reduce student motivation.

  14. How Can You Motivate Students in Your Classroom? Discussion • Realizing that intrinsic rewards are more effective in motivating students than extrinsic, how can you more effectively motivate students to learn? • What motivates you to learn? • What effective techniques have you seen used by other teachers?

  15. Aspects of Motivation • Direct rewards (like money from parents for good grades or bonus points from teachers) tend to decreaseintrinsic motivation. • Positive verbal reinforcements tend to increaseintrinsic motivation.

  16. How to Motivate • Increase intrinsic rewards. • Reinforce students’ sense of accomplishment. • Interest students interest/desire to learn a topic. • Use positive verbal reinforcements. • Use extrinsic rewards when needed. • Example: Use for learning skills, which tend to be repetitious and boring.

  17. How to Motivate • If students are already motivated, do not use extrinsic rewards (may produce negative effects). • If student motivation slows, it is better to add an incentive than to accept poor performance or using threats and punishment.

  18. How to Motivate • When using extrinsic rewards, counteract the negative effects on intrinsic motivation: • Make reward contingent on a desired level of performance (vs. completion of task, which leads to devaluation of the activity). • Explain to students the value and importance (long-term benefit) of gaining the skill. • Plan activities and use materials that have the potential to maintain student interest.

  19. Grades • The most prevalent form of incentive for students is the grade. • Good grades are a powerful motivation when they are perceived to be a direct reflection of achievement and competence. Try to tie all student work to grades.

  20. Grades • Some teachers feel too much emphasis is put on grades, and not enough emphasis on teaching/learning. • This leaves students with less control over their fate. Make the grading criteria reflect the course’s learning objectives, and ensure the criteria are clear.

  21. Student Incentives • Recognition: • Display student work. • Award a certificate for achievement, improvement, or good behavior. • Class honor roll (names on bulletin board). • “Student of the Week.” • Verbally recognize student accomplishment. • Give public recognition to several students to avoid embarrassing individual adolescents.

  22. Student Incentives • Academic activities as motivators: • Competition (between or within classes). • Highest overall grades, first to complete project. • Assignment recycling [mastery learning]. • Extra-credit assignments. • Student-tracked point system. • Earn points (assignments, extra credit, good behavior) over a month or marking period. Goes into course grade.

  23. Student Incentives • Individual activities as rewards: • Working with a friend. • Free reading time. • Visit to the library. • Help to decorate a bulletin board.

  24. Class activities as rewards: Watch a video. Free time (15 minutes). Play a game. Listen to music. No homework. Popcorn for the class. Field trip. Party. Suggestions: Let the class have a vote on the activity. Activity depends on whole class behavior. Don’t let 1 or 2 students spoil the activity. Exclude those students from participating if you can find a supervised place for them. Student Incentives If recognition will come at the end of the year, explain these awards up front so students can work toward them.

  25. Student Incentives • Material rewards for individual students: • Food/snacks. • Old classroom materials. • Games or toys. • Books.

  26. Responding to Students Discussion • You need to teach students a skill or have them memorize prerequisite information. They complain that the activity is boring. • What will you say to students in response? • What will you do?

  27. Class Activity • Examining incentives and rewards. • Which of the incentives/rewards would you be inclined to use and why? • Which would you not use and why? • Consider: • Effects on student attitudes and motivation. • Behavior in the long and short-run. • Teacher time and effort required. • Perform a search for additional ideas (good and/or bad).

  28. Review:MODULE 4-A • What motivates people? • What motivates students? • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. • Aspects of motivation. • How to motivate. • Grades as motivation. • Student incentives.