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Danielle S. Rudes Shannon Portillo Jill Viglione Lincoln B. Sloas Kirsten Hutzell Faye S. Taxman Center for Advancing Correctional Excellence (ACE!) CRIMINOLOGY, LAW AND SOCIETY GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY. Change Talk: Processual Differences in Criminal Justice Settings during Implementation.

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change talk processual differences in criminal justice settings during implementation

Danielle S. Rudes

Shannon Portillo

Jill Viglione

Lincoln B. Sloas

Kirsten Hutzell

Faye S. Taxman

Center for Advancing Correctional Excellence (ACE!)

CRIMINOLOGY, LAW AND SOCIETY

GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY

Change Talk: Processual Differences in Criminal Justice Settings during Implementation

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

NIDA U01 DA 16213; CJ-DATS is funded by NIDA in collaboration with: SAMHSA, CDC, NIAAA, and BJA

Project Team

Faye S. Taxman, Ph.D.

Danielle S. Rudes, Ph.D.

Shannon Portillo, Ph.D.

Anne Rhodes, M.S.

Amy Murphy, M.P.P.

Jennifer Lerch, M.A.

Maxine Stitzer, Ph.D.

Peter Luongo, Ph.D., LCSW-C

Peter Friedmann, M.D., M.Ph.

Sandy Ressler, M.F.A.

Jill Viglione, M.A.

Erin Crites, M.A.

Stephanie Ainsworth, M.A.

Lincoln B. Sloas, M.A.

contingency management in a criminal justice setting
Contingency Management in a criminal justice setting
  • Evidence-based treatment
  • Shape behaviors through rewards
  • Focus on a social contract for behavior
  • Technique to replace immediate “drug using”; structured rewards

Adaptation

  • Fit to Environment
  • Include Sanctions
8 main cm principles
8 Main CM Principles
  • Positive incentives w/ point system
  • Clear guidelines about earning points
  • Emphasize abstinence from drugs
  • Early incentives
  • Point escalation
  • Integrating point system into existing system
  • Bonuses
  • Focus on no more than 3 behaviors at a time
site overview
Site Overview

Site Initial(a) Added (b)

One Drug Court --

Two Drug Court Reentry Court

Three Drug Court Gang Court

Four Regular Caseload --

Five UndeterminedHalfway House & Drug Court*

*Started with one ideas regarding implementing in one location/program but realized program not far enough along for CM. When program was ready they added it back into JSTEPS.

research question
Research question
  • How do criminal justice workers understand and discuss change barriers and facilitators throughout implementation processes?
previous literature on change talk
Previous literature on change talk
  • Change occurs in language (Ford & Ford, 1995)
  • Organizational change is created through continuous dialogue between tacit and explicit knowledge (Nonaka, 1994)
  • Process of change is linked to four stages—anticipation, confirmation, culmination, and aftermath (Isabella, 1990)
methods
Methods
  • Data collection
    • Pre-implementation site visits
    • Site visits during implementation/learning team meetings
    • Follow-up
  • Data analysis
    • Atlas.ti
    • Utilized a line-by-line coding structure, linking each line of text to a code or codes from the coding list that developed
  • We use change talk as a mechanism to understand change processes
research development phases
Research development phases

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

0 6 12 18 24

Months

Wrap up site visits & phone calls

Site visits at S1, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4, Learning Meeting & Org survey

2nd learning meeting

Follow up phone calls & feedback reports

Site visit at S5, follow-up TA, feedback reports & telephone calls

Follow up site visits at S1, 2a/b, 3a, 4 &5; site visit S3b, TA, feedback reports & follow up phone calls

site development phases
Site development phases

Months

0 6 12 18 24

S1BA

S2aB A

S2bB A

S3aB A

S3b A B

S4B A

S5a B

S5bBA

what we learned from adoption phase
What we learned from Adoption Phase…
  • Talk about a change barrier at Site Three
    • One team member from Site Three commented that the Judge is also a poor leader. She stated that “We have a leader who couldn’t lead a one car parade…” She further commented that “she was really shocked that Judge Marcus ever got anything done because he could not make a decision.
  • Talk about a change facilitator at Site Three
    • In addition, he mentions “that drug court makes the PD and AUSA get along, they are no longer playing ‘bad guy’ and ‘good guy’ they have to work as a team to get people to help.”
what we learned from adoption phase1
What we learned from Adoption Phase…
  • Talk about a change barrier at Site Five
    • Some supportive and some unsupportingand looking for reasons why they should not move forward with JSTEPS
  • Talk about a change facilitator at Site Five
    • PO thinks the client who discussed the incentives with us is going very well. He notes that that client likes to be told he is doing well and that during the group today PO told him (at the client's urging) 3-4 times. He seems to have it together and really wants to be with his family.
site development phases1
Site development phases

0 6 12 18 24

Months

S1AB

S2aBA

S2b BA

S3a AB

S3b BA

S4 BA

S5a B

S5b AB

what we learned from implementation phase
What we learned from Implementation Phase…
  • Talk about a change barrier at Site Three
    • Data suggest that the team perceived the “biggest issues are hard core heroin users who stay for a few weeks and then drop off/quit coming.”
  • Talk about a change facilitator at Site Three
    • One PO stated that “she loved drug court and she was happy with everything that they were doing.” (who said)
what we learned from implementation phase1
What we learned from Implementation Phase…
  • Talk about a change barrier at Site Five
    • Point system won't work with pre conditions because not drug tested as much and he doesn’t have access to their information because they are not officially on supervision yet
  • Talk about a change facilitator at Site Five
    • The team found the points system easy and manageable, and allows for a summary of the client's progress than can be given to appropriate parties.
site development phases2
Site development phases

0 6 12 18 24

Months

S1B

S2a

S2b

S3aBA

S3b

S4B

S5a

S5bB

what we learned from sustainability phase
What we learned from Sustainability Phase…
  • Talk about a change barrier at Site Three
    • Specifically, the team reported that the “US attorney tried to expend very little resources on the program.”
  • Talk about a change facilitator at Site Three
    • Site has secured funding since the depletion of JSTEPS funding to keep the program running
what we learned from sustainability phase1
What we learned from Sustainability Phase…
  • Talk about a change barrier at Site Five
    • Try to use attorney admissions fund but not sure if they will get access to it
  • Talk about a change facilitator at Site Five
    • None indicated
discussion
Discussion
  • What we have learned…
    • Change talk varied between the two sites in terms of adoption, implementation, and sustainability
    • It is important to distinguish between what the sites did behaviorally and how their attitudes of JSTEPS developed
  • Next steps…
    • Future studies will consist moving beyond the 18-month time point to see if each site is still sustaining
questions
Questions?

Mahalo!