WHAT ARE TEXT FEATURES? • TEXT FEATURESare parts of your textbook that have been created to help you locate and learn information. • TEXT FEATURESare used in designing and organizing the pages of your textbook. • The title page and table of contents are text features you can find at the beginning of books. • Headings, graphics, main idea boxes, and bolded words are some of the text features you will find in the middle of your book. • Reference pages like glossaries, indexes, and atlases are some text features you might find at the endof your book.
HOW DO YOU USE TEXT FEATURES? • Knowing which text features to use and when is important. • Look at the examples below. Let’s see how many of these your group can correctly identify and determine its importance (5 points) • Take a look at the chart and let’s discuss it.It shouldhelp you decide which text features to look at when you want to understand your book better. Title Highlighted Text Graphs Bold-Faced Print Icons Maps Heading Charts or Tables Italics Pull-Down Menu Keyword Search Captions Diagrams Sidebar
HOMEWORK COMPLETE THE TEXT FEATURES CHART by adding “sidebar” and “highlighted text.” Make sure that you include the definition and example (just like in the chart)
INTERACTIVE POWERPOINT ASSIGNMENT “Text Features Help Students Understand Non-Fiction Text” • http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/ttravis-57862-Text-Features-Table-Contents-Index-Glossary-Titles-Subheadings-Bold-Color-Education-ppt-powerpoint/
GROUP PROJECT! Now that you’ve learned the different text features, let’s put your knowledge to the test. Within your groups there are several Wall Street Journals. Use them to create a group visual that incorporates each of the text features from the chart. Label each of them and indicate why they are important.
WHAT IS TEXT STRUCTURE? Let’s look at a chart together! DESCRIPTION COMPARE & CONTRAST CAUSE & EFFECT SEQUENCE PROBLEM/SOLUTION
Sequence: “Goose bumps make me shiver. First I get cold. Then I shake all over.” Description: “Goose bumps make me shiver. I get little bumps on my skin. They look like sesame seeds.” Compare and Contrast: “Some people get goose bumps from fear. Others get goose bumps when they are touched emotionally.” Cause and Effect: “Goose bumps make me shiver. When the temperature drops below 45 degrees, my skin crinkles into goose bumps.” Problem and Solution: “Goose bumps make me shiver. But they disappear as soon as I cover up with a jacket or sweater.” GOOSE BUMPS: A Text Structure Analysis NOW YOU TRY IT! Instead of “goose bumps,” use “The First Day of School” as your theme.
OK. Now that you have a basic understanding of the different text structures, let’s look at nine example selections and determine the structure! Don’t forget to identify the signal words.
Making sandbags can be easy and fun. The first thing that you need to do is to get near a location with a lot of sand, so if your by a beach, that’ll be perfect. The next thing you need to do is fill your bags with sand. You will want to fill them completely and pack the sand down so that it is firm, like a brick, but leave enough space at the end so that you can tie the bag closed. After tying it closed, you may then stack them into a wall. Repeat steps until you have a large wall.
Carl Terrell Mitchell, better known by his stage name Twista, was born in 1972. Nineteen years later Mitchell’s first album, “Running’Off at da Mouth”, debuted. In 1997, after appearing on Do or Die’s hit “Po Pimp”, Twista was signed to Atlantic Records. Under that label he released “Adrenaline Rush” and formed the group SpeedknotMobstaz in 1998. His 2004 album Kamikaze went to number-one on the US Billboard 200 album chart.
Hurricanes and the destruction have caused many to lose their lives each year. Sadly, people do not have to die from these disasters. One thing that can be done to prevent more lives from being lost is to have an evacuation procedure. Cities and towns in the paths of hurricanes need to be evacuated. Some people who live in these cities and towns don’t have transportation, so buses must be provided and safe drop off zones need to be arranged. Having better evacuation procedures would save lives.
Hurricanes and tornados are both amazing yet deadly natural phenomena. Both generate deadly conditions, but in different ways. Torandos are likely to damage people and property with their high winds, which go up to 300 miles per hour, but hurricanes are generally more feared for their flooding. Also hurricanes can produce tornados, which make them quite dangerous indeed.
No one knows exactly what causes tornados, but some scientist believe that when warm air meets cold air, a tornado may form. The reason for this is that the warm air is lighter than the cold air, so it rises up fast and meets different winds moving different directions. Under the right conditions, this can cause a tornado. Though there is still much mystery surrounding tornados, many people believe that when warm moist air meets cool dry air, tornados can result.
The twist is a dance inspired by rock and roll music. To do the Twist, first stand with your feet approximately shoulder width apart. The torso may be squared to the knees and hips, or turned at an angle so one foot is farther forward than the other. Then, hold your arms out from your body, bent at your elbow. Next, rotate your hips, torso, and legs as a single unit with your arms staying more or less stationary. Every so often lift one leg off of the floor for styling. Now you’re doing the twist!
There are many reasons why people dance. Some people dance for fun, just because they enjoy dancing. After other times, people dance for exercise or for weight loss, because dancing can really get your heart beating. Also, sometimes people dance to try to get boyfriends or girlfriends. Some people think that good dancing is attractive. There are many reasons why people dance.
There’s a large windmill on my Grandma’s farm, right next to a big red barn. The windmill extends into the sky like the middle finger of industry. Next to that windmill is a crystal blue lake with waters so clear, the fish get scared when they see you waking up. All around the far side of that lake is a white fence. Not a picket fence, but like the kind with two wide white rails running horizontal with a post about every ten or fifteen feet. Well, anyway that fence separates our land from the Marsh’s property.
My father never got along with old Mr. Marsh, and their fathers didn’t get along either. Some say that high fences make good neighbors. Well, if that’s true than our fences must be much too short. It all started back in 1874, when my grandma was just a young girl doing her laundry in the lake. Old Mr. Marsh just happened to be dumping some animal waste in that same lake. My grandma didn’t like that too much, being as the waste might get on her church clothes and all, so she started shouting across the lake. He shouted back. Maybe old Mr. Marsh’s pigs disappeared. Then our grain silo burned down. The somebody went and salted Mr. Marsh’s prime farmland. Yep, it seems that as long as I can remember, we have either been at odds or getting even with the Marsh family.
OK. Now that you have a better understanding of the different text structures, let’s look at six example selections. Your job is to provide a picture, title and determine the structure. Don’t forget to identify the signal words!
TITLE:_____________________ TEXT STRUCTURE:________________ Dinosaurs existed about 250 million years ago to 65 million years ago. This era is broken up into three periods known as the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The Triassic Period lasted for 35 million years from 250-205 million years ago. Planet Earth was a very different place back then. All the continents were united to form one huge land mass known as Pangaea. The Jurassic Period was the second phase. The continents began shifting apart. The time scale for this famous period is from 205 to 138 million years ago. The Cretaceous Period was the last period of the dinosaurs. It spanned a time from 138 million to about 65 million years ago. In this period the continents fully separated. However, Australia and Antarctica were still united
TITLE:_____________________ TEXT STRUCTURE:________________ The Cretaceous Period was filled with dangerous predators, but two of the most feared hunters were the tyrannosaurs rex and the velociraptor. The tyrannosaurs rex was one of the largest carnivores to ever walk the Earth. He was 20 feet tall and weighed seven tons. His jaws could crush down with 3,000 lbs. of force, enough to smash the bones of his prey. The velociraptor was very small compared to rex. Raptors only stood three feet tall and were seven feet long, weighing merely 35 pounds. But the velociraptor was fast. Scientists think that raptors could run 24 miles per hour and turn on a dime. Both dinosaurs used their jaws to kill prey, but the raptor had a secret weapon: a retractable toe claw that he pulled out like a knife to slash at his prey. Both dinosaurs had eyes on the front of their heads, which helped them track prey. If these two dinosaurs had fought, it would be difficult to say which would win; however since raptors died over ten million years before the first tyrannosaurs was born, scientists don’t believe such a fight ever occurred.
TITLE:_____________________ TEXT STRUCTURE:________________ Materials: plaster of Paris, mixing bowl, large spoon or other mixing utensil, sand paper bowl or cup, objects to fossilize, paint Look for or collect an object to fossilize. This can be anything from a plastic toy dinosaur to a leaf. Pour about an inch of sand into a paper bowl or cup. Press the object into the sand. Do not bury it. Mix the plaster of Paris according to the manufacturer’s directions. Parents should do this step for their children. Pour the plaster onto the sand. Let it set overnight. Once the plaster has set remove it from the paper bowl or plate. You may need to peel or tear the paper away. Remove or brush off the sand and object to reveal the fossilized imprint. Optional: Paint if desired.
TITLE:_____________________ TEXT STRUCTURE:________________ There are many theories about why the dinosaurs vanished from the planet. One theory that many people believe is that a gigantic meteorite smashed into the Earth. Scientists believe that the meteorite was very big and that the impact may have produced a large dust cloud that covered the Earth for many years. The dust cloud may have caused plants to not receive sunlight and the large plant eaters, or herbivores, may have died off, followed by the large meat eaters, or carnivores. This theory may or may not be true, but it is one explanation as to why these giant reptiles no longer inhabit the Earth.
TITLE:_____________________ TEXT STRUCTURE:________________ The fossil record can give us large amounts of knowledge, but there are many other ways that the fossil record is incomplete or misleading. For example, the brontosaurus is a type of dinosaur that never really existed. Many people still believe in the brontosaurus today, but the “brontosaurus” is actually the body of an apatosaurus with the head of a camarasaurus. The brontosaurus was made up from these two mismatched fossils. That’s why it is important to think critically about information that people tell you, even if it’s information you find on a book or in a worksheet. Keep these problems in mind when studying fossil records to come to conclusions about dinosaurs and their lifestyles.
TITLE:_____________________ TEXT STRUCTURE:________________ One day Dino the Dinosaur decided to go for a walk to the watering hole. It was a sunny day and the sky was blue and clear. Dino was thinking about his girlfriend Dina when he saw a pack of wild lizards and animals running through the plains in a frenzy. Dino tried to ask the critters why they were running, but they just kept running. Dino scratched his dinosaur head and continued walking toward the watering hole. Soon after, Dino heard a loud thumping noise like the slow beat of a drum. The earth shook and fruit fell from the trees, but Dino was so deep in thought over his girl Dina that he didn’t even notice. The thumping grew louder and louder as Timmy the Tyrannosaurs Rex approached Dino. Dino kept thinking about his girl Dina until the moment Timmy ate him.
OK. Now that you have a solid understanding of the different text structures, let’s reverse it. I will give you a text structure and your job is to write a paragraph (≥7 sentences) that uses that structure. Don’t forget to identify the signal words!
IT’S TIME FOR A COMMON ASSESSMENT ON TEXT FEATURES & STRUCTURE! CLEAR YOUR DESK.