WHAT IS THE PROBLEM • The dictionary suggests that a problem is (a Q raised for inquiry consideration ,a Q whose answer is doubtful or difficult to find) • Or something has gone wrong and u don't know why • Or an event has occurred and there has been deviation from expectation • Ex (plan missed deadlines or sales goals)
THE PROBLEM – SOLVING PROCESS • 1-recognition and perception. • 2-problem statement. • 3-problem profile (gathering data). • 4-analyze and interpret. • 5 confirm conclusions.
1-recognition and perception • Recognition involves the identification of a problem • Ur experience and observation suggest a problem exists • Perception make u aware that problem can arise and the viewpoint u chose to take in approaching problem
2-problem statement • A problem statement summarizes the problem in order to come up with an inclusive definition which both sums up the problem while containing all its components
3-problem profile • The problem profile is where you begin to break down the problem into specific components in order to create an outline of the problem area • What? • Who? • When? • Where? • How much ?
4-analyze and interpret. • It is important to examine the facts and how they related to each other . • Interpretation involves clarifying the problem further and explaining reasons for the issues. • From this analysis solution are developed
5 confirm conclusions • After analyzing the problem it is necessary to verify your findings . • Confirming conclusions involves justifying and validating your discoveries and data in order to come up with a concise summary of the problem . • On the basis of the analysis and the resulting conclusion, recommendation for future action and alternative plan of action
WHAT IS A DECISION • Decision is a determination or choice arrived at after careful consideration • It is a conclusion or solution after a process of deliberation • Effective decision making is critical to the success of every organization ( and social institution) • Good decision making can be learned there is a simple and effective process these techniques are not difficult.
THE DECISION – MAKING PROCESS • 1-Decision Statement • 2-Formulate Criteria • 3-Generate Alternatives • 4-Compare and Evaluate • 5-Make the Decision
1-Decision Statement • A decision statement is a clean definition of what u want to achieve. While a decision statement should be precise and indicate ur purpose. • Why do u need to make the decision and what will it accomplish ? • D s contains the key words that describe the object the action and the modifiers. • Be balanced don't make the decision statement narrow (eliminate new and creative possibilities) or broad (that is hard to do and ambiguous )
2-Formulate Criteria • U R drafting an outline of specific requirements that r absolutely necessery regarding ur decision • These standards or guidelines should be to the point and measurable • Think about goals,desires and outcomes u hv in mind • Think abot ur time restriction ,budget ,impact ,qun or qul requirements ,material and equipments • Classify criteria into 2 gps MUSTs & WANTs
3-Generate Alternatives • Generating alternatives involves forming a list of option available to u in addition to ur criteria • Some alternatives will emerge naturally or ur experience will guide u to possible options
4-Compare and Evaluate • Comparing means to contrast and equate the alternatives and criteria evaluation assessing and judging the alternatives and criteria in order to form rank or estimate the value of each. • Make an objective comparison to see how each alternative performs againt each other
5-Make the Decision • Making a decision involves taking all of choices into consideration choosing the best available option ,and acting on the decision.