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6.1 Spanish Settlements on the Frontier. Saint Francis of Assisi founded a religious group known as the Franciscans. Many of these priests became missionaries. Some 400 years later, Franciscans came to Texas to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism. The Mission System.

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6 1 spanish settlements on the frontier

6.1 Spanish Settlements on the Frontier

Saint Francis of Assisi founded a religious group known as the Franciscans. Many of these priests became missionaries. Some 400 years later, Franciscans came to Texas to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism.

the mission system
The Mission System
  • At first, the Spanish were the only Europeans with settlements in North America.
  • But by the early 1600’s other nations had begun founding settlements.
  • Royal officials wanted to protect New Spain’s northern frontiers.
the mission system1
The Mission System
  • Because few Spaniards lived in these borderlands, the Spanish sent missionaries there to establish missions, or religious communities.
  • Spain used missions to convert Native Americans to Catholicism and eventually, to develop settlements in the borderlands – this system also represented the Spanish government in the borderlands.
the mission system2
The Mission System
  • The Spanish built missions near rivers to ensure a good water supply.
  • Missions usually included churches, dormitories, workrooms, barns, fields and gardens.
the mission system3
The Mission System
  • The Spanish wanted the Indians to live within the mission walls.
  • Missionaries taught the Indians about Catholicism and an agricultural way of life.
  • Many Indians helped build and maintain the missions.
the mission system4
The Mission System
  • But many other Indians did not want the missions build on their lands and opposed their way of life.
  • To protect the missions from attack, the Spanish usually built presidios, or military bases.
  • Soldiers in these forts were responsible for protecting several missions.
the mission system5
The Mission System
  • When civilians came to the borderlands, they usually built their settlements near missions and presidios.
  • Some of these civil settlements became small towns.
  • Farmers and merchants in these towns provided products and services for the missions and presidios.
the mission system6
The Mission System
  • Other Spaniards lived on ranchos, or ranches.
  • Some ranchos belonged to mission, while others were privately owned.
  • Over time, some of these ranches grew into small settlements, increasing the Spanish presence in the borderlands.
new missions along the rio grande
New Missions Along the Rio Grande
  • In the late 1600s the Spanish began building missions just south of the Rio Grande.
  • The also built several missions among the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico.
  • Life in the New Mexico missions was hard, and food was often scarce.
  • The situation grew worse in the 1670s when a drought ruined many crops.
new missions along the rio grande1
New Missions Along the Rio Grande
  • Tensions increased when missionaries tried to stop the Pueblo from following their traditional religious beliefs.
  • In 1680, a Pueblo spiritual leader named Pope’ led a revolt against the Spanish.
  • This Pueblo Revolt forced the Spanish out of New Mexico
new missions along the rio grande2
New Missions Along the Rio Grande
  • Along the Rio Grande
  • Spain wanted to give these settlers a place to live and build a base from which to retake New Mexico.
  • To accomplish these goals, Spanish officials extended the mission system along the Rio Grande.
  • In 1682, Spanish founded the first mission in Texas.
new missions along the rio grande3
New Missions Along the Rio Grande
  • Corpus Christi de la Isleta was along the western Rio Grande, just east of present day El Paso.
  • Over time a town grew up on the site.
  • The Tigua Indians called the settlement Ysleta, which is probably the oldest European town in Texas.
  • El Paso was later founded near Ysleta.
new missions along the rio grande4
New Missions Along the Rio Grande
  • Other missions were built in the area,
  • Spanish and Piro Indians fleeing from the Pueblo Revolt founded a mission southeast of Ysleta.
  • Missionaries hoped to convert the Apache, Jumano, Manso, Piro, Suma and Tano Indians.
new missions along the rio grande5
New Missions Along the Rio Grande
  • In the midst of this activity, the Spanish received some shocking news.
  • The French had entered the Gulf of Mexico – Spanish waters.
  • The Spanish quickly focused their attention on protecting their territory.