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Respiration. Respiration. Release of energy from food – DON’T CONFUSE IT WITH GASEOUS EXCHANGE OR BREATHING. . Respiration. Release of energy from food. Occurs in ALL cells; in the c__________ and the m_________ . Respiration. Release of energy from food.

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respiration1
Respiration

Release of energy from food – DON’T CONFUSE IT WITH GASEOUS EXCHANGE OR BREATHING.

respiration2
Respiration

Release of energy from food.

Occurs in ALL cells; in the c__________ and the m_________

respiration3
Respiration

Release of energy from food.

Occurs in ALL cells; in the c__________ and the m_________

sources of energy
Sources of energy

ATP – adenosine triphosphate. UNIVERSAL ENERGY CARRIER.

sources of energy1
Sources of energy

ATP – adenosine triphosphate. UNIVERSAL ENERGY CARRIER.

ATP carries the energy to power EVERY reaction and process in ALL living things.

sources of energy2
Sources of energy

ATP – adenosine triphosphate. UNIVERSAL ENERGY CARRIER.

ATP carries the energy to power EVERY reaction and process in ALL living things.

It is then charged up by food molecules – this process is called cellular respiration.

sources of energy3
Sources of energy

ATP – adenosine triphosphate. UNIVERSAL ENERGY CARRIER.

ATP carries the energy to power EVERY reaction and process in ALL living things.

It is then charged up by food molecules – this process is called cellular respiration.

One molecule of glucose charges up 38 molecules of ATP.

slide9
ATP

ADP – adenosine diphosphate and ATP are similar.

slide10
ATP

ADP – adenosine diphosphate and ATP are similar.

ATP carries the energy whereas ADP is the empty carrier.

slide11
ATP

ADP – adenosine diphosphate and ATP are similar.

ATP carries the energy whereas ADP is the empty carrier.

The last phosphate bond is the high energy bond.

slide12
ATP

ADP – adenosine diphosphate and ATP are similar.

ATP carries the energy whereas ADP is the empty carrier.

The last phosphate bond is the high energy bond.

This bond is where energy is carried.

slide13
ATP

ADP – adenosine diphosphate and ATP are similar.

ATP carries the energy whereas ADP is the empty carrier.

The last phosphate bond is the high energy bond.

This bond is where energy is carried.

When ATP (tri) gives up its energy, it loses a phosphate and turns into ADP (di).

slide14
ATP

ADP – adenosine diphosphate and ATP are similar.

ATP carries the energy whereas ADP is the empty carrier.

The last phosphate bond is the high energy bond.

This bond is where energy is carried.

When ATP (tri) gives up its energy, it loses a phosphate and turns into ADP (di).

ADP then goes back to the cytoplasm and mitochondria to be recharged.

more carriers nad
More carriers - NAD

Most of the energy to charge up ADP to ATP comes from the hydrogen in glucose.

more carriers nad1
More carriers - NAD

Most of the energy to charge up ADP to ATP comes from the hydrogen in glucose.

CO2 formed as a waste product is breathed out.

more carriers nad2
More carriers - NAD

Most of the energy to charge up ADP to ATP comes from the hydrogen in glucose.

CO2 formed as a waste product is breathed out.

Hydrogen needs to be carried to the correct place – this is where NAD comes in!

more carriers nad3
More carriers - NAD

Most of the energy to charge up ADP to ATP comes from the hydrogen in glucose.

CO2 formed as a waste product is breathed out.

Hydrogen needs to be carried to the correct place – this is where NAD comes in!

NAD is when it is empty – and NADH2 is when there is hydrogen (see! The H gives it away…)

more carriers co enzyme a
More Carriers – Co-enzyme A

At the end of glycolysis (which we will come too very soon) and acetyl group is formed.

more carriers co enzyme a1
More Carriers – Co-enzyme A

At the end of glycolysis (which we will come too very soon) and acetyl group is formed.

This can’t exist by itself – it needs a carrier to go to the next step = co-enzyme A

more carriers co enzyme a2
More Carriers – Co-enzyme A

At the end of glycolysis (which we will come too very soon) and acetyl group is formed.

This can’t exist by itself – it needs a carrier to go to the next step = co-enzyme A

Carrying acetyl groups = acetyl co-enzyme A

process of aerobic respiration 3 stages
Process of aerobic respiration3 Stages
  • 1st stage: Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • Glucose forms pyruvate + ATP
  • C6H12O6  2CH3COCOOH + 2ATP
process of aerobic respiration 3 stages1
Process of aerobic respiration3 Stages
  • 1st stage: Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • Needs 2 ATP’s to kickstart – and charges up 4 ATP’s (so 2 ATP’s are gained)
process of aerobic respiration 3 stages2
Process of aerobic respiration3 Stages
  • 1st stage: Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • Needs 2 ATP’s to kickstart – and charges up 4 ATP’s (so 2 ATP’s are gained)
  • Glucose is turned into pyruvate (6 carbons to 3 carbons)
process of aerobic respiration 3 stages3
Process of aerobic respiration3 Stages
  • 1st stage: Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • Needs 2 ATP’s to kickstart – and charges up 4 ATP’s (so 2 ATP’s are gained)
  • Glucose is turned into pyruvate (6 carbons to 3 carbons)
  • Two NAD’s collect hydrogen & become ________
process of aerobic respiration 3 stages4
Process of aerobic respiration3 Stages
  • 1st stage: Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • Needs 2 ATP’s to kickstart – and charges up 4 ATP’s (so 2 ATP’s are gained)
  • Glucose is turned into pyruvate (6 carbons to 3 carbons)
  • Two NAD’s collect hydrogen & become ________
  • They carry this off to the mitochondrion membranes
process of aerobic respiration 3 stages5
Process of aerobic respiration3 Stages
  • 1st stage: Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • Needs 2 ATP’s to kickstart – and charges up 4 ATP’s (so 2 ATP’s are gained)
  • Glucose is turned into pyruvate (6 carbons to 3 carbons)
  • Two NAD’s collect hydrogen & become ________
  • They carry this off to the mitochondrion membranes
  • No oxygen is needed in this part of the process
process of aerobic respiration 2 nd part the kreb s cycle
Process of aerobic respiration:2nd part – The Kreb’s cycle

Pyruvate from cytoplasm moves into mitochondria where it is changed to acetyl co-enzyme A & CO2.

process of aerobic respiration 2 nd part the kreb s cycle1
Process of aerobic respiration:2nd part – The Kreb’s cycle

Pyruvate from cytoplasm moves into mitochondria where it is changed to acetyl co-enzyme A & CO2.

The Acetyl is broken down into CO2, H, and ATP

process of aerobic respiration 2 nd part the kreb s cycle2
Process of aerobic respiration:2nd part – The Kreb’s cycle

Pyruvate from cytoplasm moves into mitochondria where it is changed to acetyl co-enzyme A & CO2.

The Acetyl is broken down into CO2, H, and ATP

The co-enzyme A is not broken down, and returns to the cytoplasm to pick up another acetyl.

process of aerobic respiration 2 nd part the kreb s cycle3
Process of aerobic respiration:2nd part – The Kreb’s cycle

Pyruvate from cytoplasm moves into inner matrix of the mitochondria where it is changed to acetyl co-enzyme A & CO2 (waste)

The Acetyl is broken down into CO2, H, and ATP

The co-enzyme A is not broken down, and returns to the cytoplasm to pick up another acetyl.

Besides ATP, H produced contains a lot of energy.

process of aerobic respiration 2 nd part the kreb s cycle4
Process of aerobic respiration:2nd part – The Kreb’s cycle

Pyruvate from cytoplasm moves into inner matrix of the mitochondria where it is changed to acetyl co-enzyme A & CO2 (waste)

The Acetyl is broken down into CO2, H, and ATP

The co-enzyme A is not broken down, and returns to the cytoplasm to pick up another acetyl.

Besides ATP, H produces contains a lot of energy.

The most important part of this cycle, is that lots of NADs get filled up forming NADH2.

kreb s cycle
Kreb’s cycle

I will draw the diagram on the board.

process of aerobic respiration 3 rd part respiratory chain
Process of aerobic respiration:3rd part – respiratory chain

Happens on the mitochondria membranes (or cristae)

process of aerobic respiration 3 rd part respiratory chain1
Process of aerobic respiration:3rd part – respiratory chain

Happens on the mitochondria membranes (or cristae)

Hydrogen from Krebs cycle produce high energy electrons.

process of aerobic respiration 3 rd part respiratory chain2
Process of aerobic respiration:3rd part – respiratory chain

Happens on the mitochondria membranes (or cristae)

Hydrogen from Krebs cycle produce high energy electrons.

These electrons move down a “chain” and lose their energy as they pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.

process of aerobic respiration 3 rd part respiratory chain3
Process of aerobic respiration:3rd part – respiratory chain

Happens on the mitochondria membranes (or cristae)

Hydrogen from Krebs cycle produce high energy electrons.

These electrons move down a “chain” and lose their energy as they pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.

The hydrogen ions move back across the membrane and form ATP

process of aerobic respiration 3 rd part respiratory chain4
Process of aerobic respiration:3rd part – respiratory chain

Happens on the mitochondria membranes (or cristae)

Hydrogen from Krebs cycle produce high energy electrons.

These electrons move down a “chain” and lose their energy as they pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.

The hydrogen ions move back across the membrane and form ATP

Most ATP is produced in this process

process of aerobic respiration 3 rd part respiratory chain5
Process of aerobic respiration:3rd part – respiratory chain

Happens on the mitochondria membranes (or cristae)

Hydrogen from Krebs cycle produce high energy electrons.

These electrons move down a “chain” and lose their energy as they pump hydrogen ions across the membrane.

The hydrogen ions move back across the membrane and form ATP

Most ATP is produced in this process

The electrons that leave the chain, combine with O and H to form H2O.

respiratory chain
Respiratory chain

Oxygen + H ions + electrons form Water

O2 + 4H+ + 4e- H2O