4/9/13. CAS plan is due 4/23/13 or earlier ; talk to Ms. Gant if you have questions. Quarter 4 TOK Reminders: Work is due in class on due date You need to be taking notes from the text You may not print out the powerpoints I give and use as notes on the quizzes.
I think, therefore I am.
The curious incident of the dog in the nighttime….
The guard dog will bark at strangers.
The guard dog did not bark.
The murderer was not a stranger.
Remember that we develop reason and logic based on a system of rewards that appeals to sensory/emotion/language. Think of a baby learning what things are called…what rewards does he get when he is correct?
Three kinds of Reasoning:
Logical assumptions: premises, drawing conclusions independent of external factors like culture, class, etc.
Reason helps us develop consistent beliefs about the world. However, is it always appropriate? Does it leave room for faith/belief?
Reason is said not to be the way to get closest to truth but rather the best way to preserve the truth.
Causes of bad reasoning: ignorance, laziness, pride, prejudice…can you think of others?
Implication: logical relation between two ideas.
Most basic: If A, then B.
A implies that B will occur.
If idea A is true, idea B cannot be false.
Five Laws of Thought:
1. Law of Identity: If A, then A.
If this is a pencil, then it is a pencil.
Law of non-contradiction:
Nothing can be A and not A.
This pencil cannot also not be a pencil.
Law of Excluded Middle
Everything is either A or not A.
Everything is either a pencil or not a pencil.
All proof must end somewhere, and is dependent on developed systems of classification.
The word for this object is ‘pencil’. Therefore it is a pencil.
The Law of Infinite Regress
This is a pencil.
Because it writes on paper with lead.
But why does that define it as a pencil?
Because all of these other objects that also write with lead on paper are called pencils.
Generally reliable…generalizations…will have the following:
(For more, see pg. 123 of text)