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AP Macroeconomics. Interest Rates & Investment Demand. What is Investment?. Expenditures on: New plants (factories) Capital equipment (machinery) Technology (hardware & software) New Homes Inventories (goods sold by producers). Expected Rates of Return.

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interest rates investment demand

AP Macroeconomics

Interest Rates & Investment Demand

what is investment
What is Investment?
  • Expenditures on:
    • New plants (factories)
    • Capital equipment (machinery)
    • Technology (hardware & software)
    • New Homes
    • Inventories (goods sold by producers)
expected rates of return
Expected Rates of Return
  • How does business make investment decisions?
    • Cost / Benefit Analysis
  • How does business determine the benefits?
    • Expected rate of return
  • How does business count the cost?
    • Interest costs
  • How does business determine to make investment?
    • Compare expected rate of return to interest cost
      • If expected return > interest cost, then invest
      • If expected return < interest cost, then do not invest
real r v nominal i
Real (r%) v. Nominal (i%)
  • What’s the difference?
    • Nominal is the observable rate of interest. Real subtracts out inflation (π%)and is only known ex post facto.
  • How do you compute the real interest rate (r%)?

r% = i% - π%

  • What then, determines the cost of an investment decision?
    • The real interest rate (r%)
slide5

The Investment Demand Curve

Changes in r% cause changes in IG. Factors other than r% may shift the entire ID curve

r%

5%

3%

ID

IG

$2 trillion

$3 trillion

investment demand curve id
Investment Demand Curve (ID)
  • What is the shape of the Investment demand curve?
    • Downward sloping
  • Why?
    • When interest rates are high, fewer investments are profitable; when interest rates are low, more investments are profitable
    • There are few investments that yield high rates of return, and many that yield low rates of return
slide7

Shifts in Investment Demand

When investment demand shifts, different levels of gross private investment occur even while r% remains constant

r%

4%

ID1

ID

IG

$2.5 trillion

$3.25 trillion

causes of shifts in investment demand id
Causes of Shifts in Investment Demand (ID)
  • Cost of Production
    • Lower costs shift ID 
    • Higher costs shift ID 
  • Business Taxes
    • Lower business taxes shift ID 
    • Higher business taxes shift ID 
shifts in investment demand id
Shifts in Investment Demand (ID)
  • Technological Change
    • New technology shifts ID 
    • Lack of technological change shifts ID 
  • Stock of Capital
    • If an economy is low on capital, then ID 
    • If an economy has much capital, then ID 
  • Expectations
    • Positive expectations shift ID 
    • Negative expectations shift ID 
instability of investment
Instability of Investment
  • Durability
    • Capital has a long life-span, therefore once it is built there is no immediate need for further investment
  • Irregularity of Innovation
    • Innovation does not proceed in a smooth linear fashion, instead there are bursts of innovation followed by periods of relative stability
instability of investment1
Instability of Investment
  • Variability of Profits
    • Profitability is subject to the forces of competition, cyclical changes in the economy, and human management decisions
  • Variability of Expectations
    • Political, social and natural phenomenon shape our positive and negative expectations of the future
instability of investment2
Instability of Investment
  • Many economists believe that investment instability is the chief cause of the business cycle.