THE LAW p. 56. TERMS Prosecuted: Sue: Swear: Jury: Sentence: Judge:. Canadian court systems have origins in Middle Ages courts. Someone is prosecuted or sued Witnesses swear to tell the truth A jury will hear the case Sentence is passed by a judge.
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2.a) Two common methods for determining innocence or guilt were
trial by ordeal and trial by battle.
b) Both assumed God would protect the innocent, especially from harm
c) Trial by ordeal= the accused was given a situation that caused harm or death. If they survived, they were considered innocent. If not, they were found guilty.
eg. Carry red-hot iron
Peter T. Leeson
I argue that medieval judicial ordeals accurately assigned accused criminals’ guilt
and innocence. They did this by leveraging a medieval superstition called iudicium
Dei. According to that superstition, God condemned the guilty and exonerated the
innocent through clergy conducted physical tests. Medieval citizens’ belief in iudicium
Dei created a separating equilibrium in which only innocent defendants were willing
to undergo ordeals.
Boiling water rarely boiled persons who plunged their arms in it. Burning iron rarely burned persons who carried it. Ordeal outcomes were miraculous. But they were miracles of mechanism design.
i) it was assumed that God protected either the accused or the defendant
ii) only nobles could use this method (knights)
iii) a noble woman could choose a champion to fight on her behalf