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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UNIT-II. PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY MB 203. PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Human Recourse Management (MB 203) . Max. Marks 100 External Marks: 60 Internal Marks: 40 UNIT- II

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human resource management unit ii



MB 203

punjab technical university human recourse management mb 203
PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITYHuman Recourse Management (MB 203)

Max. Marks 100

External Marks: 60

Internal Marks: 40


Recruitment & Selection: Meaning & Concept, Process & Methods Recruitment & Selections. Induction & Placement Process. Training & Development: Meaning & Concept of Training & Development, Methods of Training & Development, Difference Between Training & Development, Aligning Training to Business Needs, Future of Training & development. Career Planning & Coaching & Mentoring.


“It is a process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for existing or anticipated job openings.”

Recruitment, logically aims at

  • Attracting a large no of qualified applicants who are ready to take up jobs
  • Offering enough information for unqualified persons to self select themselves out.

Information Flow

Organization need for high quality employees

Potential applicants need for suitable job

Internal Applicants

Environment : Economic and social, Technological and political

Recruitment: Matching the needs of applicants and organizations

constraints and challenges
Constraints and challenges
  • In actual practice, it is always not easy to find and select a suitable candidate for a job opening. Sometimes the most suitable candidates may not have been motivated to apply due to several constraints.
    • Poor Image
    • Unattractive Job
    • Conservative internal policies
    • Limited budgetary support
    • Restrictive policies of government
various factors affecting recruitment
Various factors affecting recruitment
  • The Economic environment : e.g. LPG have contributed to the demand for management graduates in risk management, marketing skills etc. Companies have done extensive advertising for recruitment. However by late 90’s the recession have changed the rule of the game in sectors such as software, automobile, pharmaceuticals.
  • The Technological Environment : New technology creates new jobs. In 1990’s chronic shortage of people with requisite skills and knowledge in the field of software, telecommunications, insurance etc. In such a scenario, companies have to step up their recruitment efforts to compete successfully for the small numbers of suitable candidates available in the markets.
various factors affecting recruitment1
Various factors affecting recruitment
  • The Political Environment: In late 80s “equal employment opportunities” had become a major slogan in corporate circles.
  • The Legal Environment :The Factories act, 1948 prohibits the employment of women and child (below 18 years) in certain jobs.
  • The Social environment : e.g. At Intel, a manager’s main job is to take care of his employee’s career development. And each Intel employee has a development plan, on which he charts career. The employee and his manager talk about the former’s goal and Intel invest on the training the employee requires.
process of recruitment
Process of Recruitment

1.Human Resource Planning

2.Identify Human Resource Requirements

a) Demand or Surplus

3.Determine the number of Vacancies

4.Choose the resources and methods of recruitment

5.Analyze the cost and time involved

6.Implement the recruitment program

7.Shortlist the candidates

8.Evaluate the program


Methods of recruitment

Internal Methods

External Methods

Promotion & Transfer

Job Posting

Employee Referrals

Direct & Indirect Methods

Third Party Methods

1. Direct Method

Campus Recruitment

2. Indirect Method


News paper




Employment Exchange

Gate Hiring and Contractor

Unsolicited Applicants / Walk ins

Internet Recruiting

  • It is the process of picking individual who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. The basic purpose is to differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. The needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the less suitable applicants through successive stages of the selection process.
selection process
Selection Process

Hiring Decision

Step 8

Reference Check

Step 7

Medical Examination

Step 6

Selection Interview

Step 5

Selection Test

Step 4

Application Blank

Step 3

Screening Interview

Step 2


Step 1


1.Reception:- An organization has to create a favorable impression on the applicants right from the stage of reception.

2.Screening Interview:- A junior executive from the HR Deptt may elicit responses from applicants for determining the suitability of an applicant for the job such as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude, location choice etc. This may be consider as Courtesy interview & helps in screen out obvious misfits.


3. Application Blank:- One of the most common method used to collect information on various aspects e.g. Personal data (address, sex, identification marks) , Marital data, Physical data, educational data, employment data, References information etc. Even When applicants come armed with elaborated resumes, it is important to ask the applicants to translate specific resume material into a standardized application form.

3.1 Weighted Application Blanks (WABs): To make the application form more job related, some organizations assign numeric values or weights to responses provided by applicants. This is a highly useful selection tool, as it solve the following purposes:

  • It helps company to have a cross comparison of applicants , (fail to meet the eligibility criteria the company can reject the candidate at this stage itself)
  • It can serve as a basis for initiating a dialogue at the interview

4. Selection Testing

A test is a standardized, objective measure of a person’s behavior, performance or attitude.

  • Intelligence Test : These are mental ability tests. The basic objective of this test is to pick up employees who are alert and quick at learning things. This test measure various abilities such as memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, numerical ability etc. These test are used at entry level management positions in Banking, Insurance and other financial Services Sector.
  • Aptitude Test : Potential to lean certain skills e.g. clerical, mechanical mathematical etc. In order to select efficient office staff, aptitude tests are necessary. These test are generally used in combination with other tests e.g. intelligent and personality test.

4. Selection Testing

  • Personality Test : To measure the relation ship between personality factor and actual job criteria. These test measure basic aspects of an applicants' personality such as motivation, emotional balance, self-confidence, interpersonal behavior etc. There are 3 types of tests:

Projective Test : Candidate interpret problems or situations based on their own motives, attitudes, values etc.

Interest Test: These test show the areas of work in which a person is most interested.

Preference Test: These test try to compare with the job and organizational requirements.


Step 4. Selection Testing

  • Achievement Test : To check whether the testee actually knows what he or she claims to know. e.g. A typing test shows typing proficiency.
  • Simulation Test : It is a test which duplicates many of the activities and problems an employee faces while at work. It uses to assess potential of a candidate for managerial positions.
  • Assessment centre : A small batch of applicants come to the assessment centre. Their performance in the situational exercises is observed and evaluated by a team of 6 to 8 trained assessors. Following are the activities these centre using
    • The in-basket , The leaderless group discussions, Business Games, Individual presentations, Structured interview

4. Selection Testing :

  • Graphology Tests : It involves using a trained evaluator to examine the lines, loops, hooks, strokes, curves and flourishes in a person’s handwriting to assess the person’s personality and emotional make-up.
  • Polygraph Test : The polygraph records changes in the examinee as the examiner puts questions that call for answer a series of questions.
  • Integrity Test: These are designed to measure employee’s honesty to predict those who are more likely to steal from an employer of otherwise act in a manner unacceptable to the organization.

5. Selection Interview : It is an oral examination of candidates for employment. This is most essential step in the selection process. In this interviewer tries to obtain and synthesize information about the abilities of the interviewee and the requirements of the job. Most commonly used interviews are :

  • The non-directive interview (no specific format)
  • The directive or structure interview (Predetermined set of questions)
  • The situational interview (A hypothetical incidents given )
  • The behavioral interview (Actual work incidents given)
  • Stress interview (how he/she responds to aggressive, rude & insulting Situations)
  • Panel interview ((3 to 5 interviewers ask new and incisive questions)

6. Medical Examination : To ensure that the applicant is medically suitable for specific job. And to check whether the applicant has heath problems or psychological attitudes likely to interfere with work efficiency or future attendance.

7. Reference Check : Candidates are required to give the names of two or three references in their application foams. A good reference check when used sincerely, will fetch useful and reliable information to the organization.

8. Hiring Decision : The line manager concerned has to make the final decision now – whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques.


After a candidate has been selected, he should be placed on a suitable job. Placement is the actual posting of an employee to a specific job. It involves assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an employee. Most organizations put new recruits on probation for a given period of time, after which their services are confirmed. During this period, the performance of the probationer is closely monitored. If the new recruits fails to adjust himself too the job and turns out poor performance, the organization may consider his/her name for placement elsewhere.


Major benefits of proper placement are:

  • Employees knows what is expected of them.
  • Employee shows good results on the job.
  • Get along with people easily.
  • Keep his spirits high, report for duty regularly.
  • Develop a feeling of belongingness.
  • Avoid mistakes and accidents
induction orientation
Induction / Orientation

Induction is process meant to help the new employee to settle down quickly into the job by becoming familiar with the people, the surroundings, the job, the firm and the industry. Induction is the process of acquainting the new employees with the existing culture And practices of the new organization. It help

  • To sort out all anxiety of recruited person.
  • To ensure the effective integration of staff.
  • Introduction to the company/department and its personnel structure.
  • Relevant personnel policies, such as training, leaves, codes & ethics
  • To clear doubtful situation between new employee and existing one
objectives of induction
Objectives of Induction
  • Removes fears : When a new comer steps into an organization various fears bother him a lot. And this program assist him in knowing more about:
    • the job, its content, policies, rules, regulations, people to whom he is supposed to interact, term & conditions of employment.
  • Creates a good impression : It aim is to make newcomer feel at home and develop a sense of pride in the organization. It helps him to :
    • Adjust & adapt to new demands of the job, get along with people, what is expected of him etc.
  • Acts as a valuable source of information : It classifies many things through employee manuals/handbook. It communicates specific requirements to the employee, put him at ease and make him feel confident about his abilities.
steps of induction orientation
Steps of Induction / Orientation

Welcome to the organization



Company Details


Department of newcomer - details

Give Company manual


Details about workgroup & extent of unionism


Details about pay, benefits, holidays, leaves, attendance & punctuality etc.


Explain training opportunities, career prospects



Clear Doubt & encourage to ask questions


Take the employee on a guided tour of buildings, facilities etc.


Organizational Issues

  • History of employer
  • Organization structure
  • Name & Title of key executives
  • Employee’s title & department
  • Layout of Physical Facilitates
  • Probationary period
  • Overview of SOP
  • Company policies & rules
  • Employee handbook
  • Safety procedures

Employee Benefits

  • Pay scale and pay days
  • Vacations and holidays
  • Rest breaks
  • Training & education benefits
  • Insurance benefits
  • Retirement benefits
  • Employer-provided services
  • Rehabilitation programmes


  • To supervisor
  • To trainers
  • To co-workers
  • To employee Counselor

Job Duties

  • Job Location
  • Job Tasks
  • Job Safety requirements
  • Overview of job
  • Job Objectives
  • Relationship of other jobs

MrsSunitadevi worked for 15 years in the ABC biscuit ltd. She joined very recently the Parle G Company as production Manager. She was supposed to attend a routine departmental meeting last Monday at 5:30 p.m, which was presided over by MD of the company. She did not attend the meeting as there was no formal or informal communication to her. The MD did not like her absence as there were many important items to be discussed regarding the production department. MrsSunita Devi was called by the MD on next day and asked explanation for not attending the meeting. MrsSunita Devi replied that there was no information. The secretary said that it was a routine meeting and as such information was not sending to any departmental head. But all heads, except MrsSunita Devi attended the meeting. Then, MD spent a lot of time to find out the man, who is responsible for the incident. But could not succeed.


Lets Discuss!!

  • Find out the person responsible for the incident.
  • What can be the prevention steps you will take in future ..?
training definition
Training - Definition

“Training is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his ability to perform on the job.”

De Cenzo and S Robbins.

“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.”

Edwin Flippo

development definition
Development - Definition

“Development is a planned, systematic and continuous process of learning and growth by which managers develop their conceptual and analytical abilities to manage.”

It refers to formal education, job experience, relationships and assessment of personality and abilities that help employees perform effectively in their current or future job in an organizations

need for training
Need for Training
  • To perform the assigned task more efficiently
  • Help the employees to handle jobs competently, without any wastage.
  • Enables employees to cope up with the latest technological changes
  • Helps employees to improve their performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably
  • It help employees mobile and versatile.
  • Its bridges the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands.
training process
Training Process

Need Analysis Phase

Performance Gap

Design Phase

Development of training objectives

Development Phase

Instructional Strategy

Implementation Phase

Execution of Plan

Process evaluation data

Evaluation Phase

Outcome Evaluation

various training methods
Various Training Methods

On the Job Training Methods

Off the job Training Methods

Job Rotation

One to one instruction

Computer based Training

Project Management




Simulations / Vestibule

Role Plays


Seminars / Conferences

Programmed instructions

on the job training methods
On the Job Training Methods
  • OJT is a form of self-paced learning that allows the individual requiring training to acquire the necessary knowledge and develop the required skills while on job. It must include all four of the critical training elements:
      • Transfer of knowledge
      • Skill acquisition and practice
      • Coaching by an experienced provider
      • Assessment of performance in providing services (application of knowledge and skills)
on the job training methods1
On the Job Training Methods
  • Job rotation: It involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he/she can get a feel for the task and its relative aspects. Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over a period of a few years.Surveys show that an increasing number of companies are using job rotation to train employees. There are both positive and negative effects involved with job rotation that need to be taken into consideration when a company makes the decision to usethis technique.
on the job training methods2
On the Job Training Methods
  • One to one instructions: In this approach a new entrant sat alongside an existing skilled operator and told to watch them carefully. After a period of observation trainees were given their own machine and told to get on with the job.
  • Computer based training : It is easy to provide this training and trainer can follow up with questions and discussions. It is easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee.
on the job training methods3
On the Job Training Methods
  • Project Management : Projects require the trainees to do something more innovative to improve the business as well as help them to learn about new area.
  • Apprenticeship: Apprentices are trainees who spends a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer. Apprenticeship and internship are similar to apprenticeships because both demand high levels of participation from the trainee.
coaching mentoring meaning
Coaching & Mentoring - Meaning
  • Coaching – Interactive process through which managers and supervisors aim to solve performance problems or to develop employees capabilities.
  • Mentoring - "Mentoring is to support and encourage people to manage their own learning in order that they may maximize their potential, develop their skills, improve their performance and become the person they want to be."

Eric Parsloe, The Oxford School of Coaching & Mentoring

various training methods1
Various Training Methods

On the Job Training Methods

Off the job Training Methods

Job Rotation

One to one instruction

Computer based Training

Project Management




Simulations / Vestibule

Role Plays


Seminars / Conferences

Programmed instructions

off the job training methods
Off the Job Training Methods
  • This method is necessary to get people away from their work environment to a place where disruptions are minimized. This enables the trainee to study theoretical information or be exposed to new and innovative ideas.
  • New concepts and techniques can be presented to a large number of people in the shortest possible time.
  • Views, opinions and information can be shared with a large group.
  • The different speeds of individual learning who are usually forced to progress at a compromise rate.
off the job training methods1
Off the Job Training Methods
  • Simulations / Vestibule : Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive activity where they imitate actions required on the job. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs.
  • Role Playing : Its an interactive method that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situation. This method of training involves action, doing and practices. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as production manager, mechanical engineer, quality control inspector etc.
off the job training methods2
Off the Job Training Methods
  • Lecture Methods : Its an traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and give it to a group of trainees in the form of talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees.
  • Conference/discussion approach : The trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubt the job get clarified. When big organizations use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as blackboards, mockups and slides; in some cases the lectures are videotaped or audio taped.
off the job training methods3
Off the Job Training Methods
  • Programmed Instruction : This method has become popular in recent years. The subject-matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex level of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus expensive and time-consuming.
aligning training to business needs
Aligning Training To Business Needs
  • Rational for how organization’s can align training to business needs
  • Manager’s expect training & development professionals to design and develop learning activities that will help the company successfully implement its strategy and reach its business goals.
  • Strategic training & development initiatives are learning-related actions that a company should take to help it achieve its business goals and objectives.
  • The organization have understood that training and development programme of the organization should support the business strategy .
  • Organizations have realized that training is a tool not only for getting better performances, but also for creating organization-wide adaptability.
aligning training to business needs1
Aligning Training To Business Needs
  • Rational for how organization’s can align training to business needs
  • Due to rapid changing environment organizations have realized to constantly realign their activities to meet new conditions
  • Organization need their people to be empowered to take effective & efficient decisions that are linked to the strategy.
  • The change in company strategy necessitated training to all employees in various new technical areas and cross-training in other jobs within their work areas.
  • Organization have realized that worker knowledge is a competitive advantage and training is a strategic tool for it.
aligning training to business needs2
Aligning Training To Business Needs
  • To use human capital to gain a competitive advantage requires linking training & development to business strategy.
  • The value of continuous learning translates into personal and professional growth opportunities including a commitment to self-development, coaching, learning etc.
  • Organization for their consistent growth needs to develop their managers with dysfunctional behaviors through a combination of assessment, training and counseling.
  • Organization have started acknowledging the need for Knowledge-based pay systems, and with the help of T&D an organization can ensure that their employees are in a learning environment which addresses the individual developmental needs.
future of training development
Future of Training & Development
  • Following are the future trends that will affect Training and Development
  • The use of new technologies for training delivery will increase
  • Demand for training for virtual work arrangements will rise
  • Emphasis on capture and storage and use of intellectual capital will increase
  • Companies will rely on learning management systems, integration with business processes, and real-time learning
future of training development1
Future of Training & Development
  • Training will focus on business needs and performance
  • Training departments will develop partnerships and will outsource
  • Training and development will be viewed more from a change model perspective
  • Increase emphasis on performance analysis and learning for business enhancement
concept of career
Concept of Career
  • It is sequence of positions held by a person during the course of a lifetime or a career consist of the changes in values, attitudes and motivation that occur as a person grows older.
  • It also comprises of a series of work related activities a that provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life.
  • Successful people identify their career goals, plan and then take action.
stages in career
Stages in Career




Mid Career

Late Career



Will Performance Increase or begin to decline

The elder statesperson

Preparing for Retirement

From college to work

First job and being accepted








career planning its process
Career planning & its process
  • It is a process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals. The major focus of career planning is on assisting the employees achieve a better match between personal goals and the opportunities that are realistically available in the organization.

Identify individual needs and aspirations

Analyzing career opportunities

Aligning needs and opportunities

Action plan and periodic review

coaching mentoring meaning1
Coaching & Mentoring - Meaning
  • Coaching – Interactive process through which managers and supervisors aim to solve performance problems or to develop employees capabilities.
  • Mentoring - "Mentoring is to support and encourage people to manage their own learning in order that they may maximize their potential, develop their skills, improve their performance and become the person they want to be."

Eric Parsloe, The Oxford School of Coaching & Mentoring

benefits of coaching mentoring
Benefits of Coaching & Mentoring



  • Teaches the protégé about a specific issue
  • Facilitates the protégé growth by sharing resources and networks
  • Challenges the protégé to move beyond his or her comfort zone
  • Creates a safe learning environment for taking risks
  • Focuses on the protégé total development
  • Developing employees KSAs
  • Overcoming performance problems
  • Increasing productivity
  • Creating promotable subordinates
  • Improving retention
  • Fostering a positive work culture